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Class 5. Causal Models.docx

2 Pages

Social Sciences
Course Code
Stephanie Mullen

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Causal Models Objectives • Know how to model simple and complex cause & effect relationships. Steps in the Scientific Method • 1. Identify the problem. (Literature Review & Causal Models) • 2. Hypothesize the cause of the problem. • 3. Provide clear definitions of the concepts. • 4. Operationalize the concepts. • 5. Gather empirical data. • 6. Test the hypothesis or hypotheses. • 7. Reflect back on theory. • 8. Publicize the results. • 9. Replicate the results. Theories in Causal Models • Underlying the hypothesized causal connection between attitudes toward party leaders and voting is a theory about the causes of voting. • A theory can be defined as “a statement of what are held to be the general laws, principles or causes of something known or observed. • Theories are statements about the relationships between concepts • Statistical techniques largely are able to assess the strength of association, not the direction of causation. • The direction of causation is determined by research design, in which the researcher hypothesizes a direction of causality and underpins this hypothesis with a more general theory of the causal relationship. Causality • Relationships between variables and the direction of that relationship Causal Models • Basic Causal Models • Simple Extended Causal Models • Complex Extended Causal Models Basic Cau
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