October 18 :
Came out of the US crime rates are high
Two types of people: careerists, i.e. executives (work hard to succeed), i.e. street gangs,
behaviour near identical: seek power, wealth, etc.
o Even when you make it to the top you always want more and more
Cultural Support Theory
Based on the idea that people are learners
o Learn things lead you towards deviant lifestyle (or ways of acting) youre way
more likely to do so. You can be socialised into deviance.
o I.e. raised in a violent household how you deal with problems, frustration
Journalist that interviewed why prisoners killed a person (Richard Rhodes)
Motorcyclists The morals that they learn or their behaviour, etc.
Absence of control
Way to merge the two types of deviance: primary form and secondary form
o Why dont all of us do this all the time? (Deviance)
Controlled by parents, religion, wealth
o Emile Durkeim: when you kill yourself, when Catholic (region) you didnt kill
yourself very much compared to protestant, married tended not to kill yourself.
Catholics have hierarchal social structure
Going to mass social bond with a lot of people
Nobody wants to let someone down
Told who we are
o I.e Charles Cooley theory The Looking Glass Mirror
The Sociology of Deviant Categories
The study of moral stratification (stratification layers from top to bottom)
o Morals are not 100% concrete
How is deviance constructed and contested?
o Not in nature, we achieve them. Reflect the idea of what is right/wrong is a
construct and not a fact
1 Moral Stratification
Perceived distance from normality
o Lying when someone asks how youre feeling, answer with fine (thats alright),
lying under oath (jail time)
o Martha Stewart insider trading: receives information about business deals, and
sell stock (5 months in jail) vs. Car Thief (5 years in jail), treated differently.
Concerns of normal how we punish people
October 21 :t
Section 6 Social Class and Social Structure
Social structure means that there are things in the broader world and act like so
Why are some people rich and some people poor?
o Some born into wealth/poverty, what a person has access to (some have the means
to become rich, money is power,
o Man has less obstacles to obtain wealth not expected to be the primary caregiver
Findings from 100 years of sociological research
1. Society is a sorter and a categorizer
a. Determines who we are, the powers we have
b. Sorted/Categorized: gender, grades, background, religion, wealth... etc.
2. Many of these categories are involuntary
a. You can choose what group you are in at school whereas you cannot choose what
type of family you are born into (wealthy? abusive?)
b. Most categorize have to do with luck health care in Canada
3. These categories are sticky
a. These categories arent permanent born in poor family but get a great degree
and job, become wealthy.
b. We tend to stick poor family leads to poverty in the future and vice versa.
i. Article on child poverty Despite 50% increase in the size of the
economy, the child poverty rates are unchanged (11.7% in 2005).
ii. Problems endure uneven distribution of wealth between countries.
iii. Mechanisms in place that cause consequences (soccer balls and child
labour we want cheap soccer balls)
iv. Effect of structure: children in development countries arent individually
2 Inequalities of Outcome vs. Structural Inequalities
Outcome: inevitable product of competitive structure/institution/system. Outcome of a
o I.e. Universities are competitive inevitable in the way the university is
Structural: refers to a thing that precedes inequality outcomes. More profound type of
inequality, less to do with performance, more about structure.
o I.e. medical school is expensive, being tested in university for uniquely smarts
o 80% of people in Canada dont have a university degree, there will never be a
university system for everybody
o There is a thing in the system and how its made that will keep people in poverty
If you go up on the ladder, someone will go down it.
We live in an individual society its ok to be awarded by merits
- We look at inequality in two senses: the moral lens and the analytical lens
Social Class (upper-class, middle-class, lower-class)
Relates to social inequalities
What is social class?
o Middle-class is a type of neutralisation to the upper/lower class.
Has something to do with lifestyle, or consumption power, but not in sociology.
Little to do with lifestyle, not consumption access to power and privileges, way
economy is structured people have different types of capacities
Def: Refers to the structural conditions within society, about social position, relative
power (to other people, not numbers, i.e. economy grew 1.5 times),
Social Structure and Inequality
Why study inequality?
Main mission: understand world around us
Creates patterns we can look at (of the world) born into different status, status
What is social structure?
Rules of the game not laws we create but have to follow, involuntary. Sticky
Sociology in history
3 Karl Marx:
Placed class at the absolute core (explained the world).
The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and
slave, patrician and plebeian, noble and peasant...
o Not ideas that change first, the economy does (always two conflicting classes)
One group has power bc of freedoms (freeman, patrician, nobleman),
other class does the work
Conflict theory lower wouldnt work for upper if they didnt have to.
They can still work without them. Upper has violence under belt to keep
lower in line
In our epoch... society is more and more... (find on virtual campus)
o Two new classes that are being established, directly confronting each other.
Capitalist classes (Bourgeoisie) against the Working Class (proletariat) =
conflict working class wants more wages, capitalists want profit (low
Working class sells their time and self to make $ relationship to
o Going to work: creating value, worker will never get the surplus value of your
I.e. students pay more (10 000$) than the profs make in a year (not 200
000$) goes to university (exploitation)
The Means of Production
o Means of creating value: capture the conception of value
Need to enter relationship with capitalists to survive ($)
The Problem of Alienation:
o Feeling of being distanced from
Job you dont like become someone else (not yourself), have no choices
Craftsman that makes snow globes choose time that you work, design,
who you sell to (expression of self) economy today: adding a piece to an
ipod in a factory, no expression (loose soul to their job)
The Reserve Army of Labour
o Unemployment rate never lower than 5% Canada, always people looking for work
= workers are replaceable (reserved army that keep mobilisation keep low
o Less jobs than workers
Power is unevenly distributed. Capitalism = concentrate power and have to follow those