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Lecture 3

SOC1101 – Lecture 3.docx

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Willow Scobie

SOC1101 – Lecture 3 C. Darwin - Variations - Harsh environment - Selection - Evolution 9-11 M 3-4 M 1-1/2 M ½ M Ramapithecus Ramapithecus Homo Erectus Homo Sapien Australopithecus Africanus A. Robustis Homo Habilis 100,000 – 300,000 Homo Sapien Sapien What behavior is natural and what behavior is the result of culture? If you compare 2 or more societies, and the behavior is the same across them, then they are biologically based. On the other hand, if you see people in one place act one way, and one person at another way in another place, but we are all biologically based, it is a result of culture. - Not much evolution over the last 100,000 years (anatomically the same) - Behaviors change over years, biology doesn’t as much - Behavior is based on culture, not biologically based factors - We are anatomically the same around the world - Human Evolutionary history o Everyone in the world shares an evolutionary pathway o All the evolution takes place in Africa (homids)  They leave Africa and walk around the world Human Evolution Ramapithecus - Dates back 9-11 Million years ago out of Africa - This is a hominid - It wasn’t very big, but it walked upright, had free hands, spent some time living in trees, but would come to the ground in search of food - Would live with other creatures of its type, but was solitary o Didn’t depend on other creatures for food o Provided for itself 3-4 Million Years ago - A number of varieties of hominids co-existing with each other - Date it back to Africa, but fossils have been found in Asia and Europe - New hominid Species - A.Africanus (first fossils found in Africa – hence the name) o Slight build, taller than ramapithecus, slight bone, short legs, not a very good walker/runner. Moved around upright, doesn’t live in trees o Walking around the Savanna looking for food - A. Robustus o Heavier bones, taller, more muscular/dense o Never leave Africa o Nothing comes out of them, end of that species - Homo Habilis o Homo (means man) Habilis (means tool maker) o It was significantly larger than the other three creatures (about 5ft) o Its brain was significantly larger than the other 3 (about 2/3 the size of our modern brain) o It’s making tools o It leaves Africa and walks into Asia and Africa - Homo Erectus o Evoloves from Homo Habilis o Fosils date back 1-1.5 million years ago in Africa o Like the habilis, it left Africa and went into Asia and Europe o 5.5 ft tall, it’s brain is in the normal range of the modern human brain o Modern foot (first creature to have a foot like the modern human – heel, arch, ball)  Able to walk quickly and run well, very good hunters - Homo Sapien o Means man like us o Evolves in Africa o Is thought that Homo erectus gives us homo sapien o Neanderthal – first fossils found in Neanderthal Valley in Germany o Cro-Magnons
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