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Lecture 16

SOC 1101- Lecture 16.docx

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Willow Scobie

SOC 1101 – Lecture 16 Thursday, November 14, 2013. Continued from last class… Structural Functionalism  Émile Durkheim o Fathers of sociology  Talcott Parsons o Argued that society is a system o Student of Durkheim  System  Model of the organism o The human body and how it all interacts o The system functions all together and all parts are necessary  Social structure (patterns of behavior) serve specific functions o Discipline crime for example  Critique: what about the individual? o Comes back to the broader pattern about the individual o We are not an organism that moves in union, we are a complex individual Theory of Structuration  A Giddens  Combination of structure and agency o It is a two-way process by which we shape our social world through our individual actions and by which we are reshaped by society. Habitus  P. Bourdieu  Actions of individuals are socially constrained  There are broader social ruled of engagement that we all learn and adhere to  “The notion of habitus restores to the agent a generating unifying, constructing, classifying power, while recalling that this capacity to construct social reality, itself socially constructed, is not that of a transcendental subject but of a socialized body, investing in its practice socially constructed organizing principles that are acquired in the course of a situated and dated social experience” (Bourdieu, 2000: 126-7). o In his theory, he gives agency to the individual o As individuals, you have power over yourselves o Included in that capacity, is the ability to create your own social reality, while at the same time social reality is constructed o Agency = sociological term for free will Wealth and Income Inequalities Poverty  Who are the poor in Ottawa? LICO  Low-Income cut-off  Below the cut-off, people spend a disproportion of their income on food, clothing and shelter.  Likely to spend 55% of their income (20% more than the average) on food, shelter and clothing  2011: $30,487 Unattached individuals  34.1% of unattached individuals, i.e. people not in families, live on low income in Ottawa o For example, students, homeless people, seniors (people who are widows or widowers) Lone Parents  40% of lone parent families with children under 18 lived in poverty Theories:  Liberalism  Conflict theory (Marxist Theory) – used interchangeably  Functionalism Liberalism  Idea that everyone
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