SOC 1101 – Lecture 16
Thursday, November 14, 2013.
Continued from last class…
o Fathers of sociology
o Argued that society is a system
o Student of Durkheim
Model of the organism
o The human body and how it all interacts
o The system functions all together and all parts are necessary
Social structure (patterns of behavior) serve specific functions
o Discipline crime for example
Critique: what about the individual?
o Comes back to the broader pattern about the individual
o We are not an organism that moves in union, we are a complex
Theory of Structuration
Combination of structure and agency
o It is a two-way process by which we shape our social world through
our individual actions and by which we are reshaped by society.
Actions of individuals are socially constrained
There are broader social ruled of engagement that we all learn and adhere to
“The notion of habitus restores to the agent a generating unifying,
constructing, classifying power, while recalling that this capacity to construct
social reality, itself socially constructed, is not that of a transcendental
subject but of a socialized body, investing in its practice socially constructed
organizing principles that are acquired in the course of a situated and dated
social experience” (Bourdieu, 2000: 126-7).
o In his theory, he gives agency to the individual
o As individuals, you have power over yourselves
o Included in that capacity, is the ability to create your own social
reality, while at the same time social reality is constructed
o Agency = sociological term for free will Wealth and Income Inequalities
Who are the poor in Ottawa?
Below the cut-off, people spend a disproportion of their income on food,
clothing and shelter.
Likely to spend 55% of their income (20% more than the average) on food,
shelter and clothing
34.1% of unattached individuals, i.e. people not in families, live on low
income in Ottawa
o For example, students, homeless people, seniors (people who are
widows or widowers)
40% of lone parent families with children under 18 lived in poverty
Conflict theory (Marxist Theory) – used interchangeably
Idea that everyone