SOC 1101 – Lecture 19
Monday, November 25, 13.
Sex: refers to physical differences
Gender: refers to psychological, social, and cultural differences between
males and females.
Role of Biology
Some researchers believe that differences between men and women are
Men have taken part in hunting and warfare.
Are men ‘naturally’ aggressive?
“Aggressiveness” varies widely from culture to culture – the extent itself and
its social value within that context
Also, women’s role in child bearing and child rearing – leaves them unable
and/or a poor choice for hunting and warfare
Studies show that there are biological factors implicated in genetics,
hormones, and brain physiology.
However, theories cannot ignore the significance of the social – in both how
human behavior is shaped and how it is understood.
The learning of male – and female-type roles and practices through social
agents such as the family and the media.
Social Construction of Gender
Gender is a social creation
It lacks a fixed essence
Feminism – belief in the social, political and economic equality of the sexes
as well as the various social movements implicated in this belief.
Sex and Sexuality
Early Sexuality Studies
Scholars viewed sexuality as a domain whose meanings change across
cultures and history
o Initial studies were concerned with ‘deviance’.
o Looked at ‘vices’ such as prostitution and pimps; also interested in
By 1960s and 197