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SOC1101 (755)
Lecture 16

Lecture 16 - Stratifcation CONT..docx

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Willow Scobie

Lecture 16 Continued From Last Lecture – Stratification Friday, November 14, 2013 Structural Functionalism - Émile Durkheim o Fathers of sociology - Talcott Parsons o Argued that society is a system o Student of Durkheim - System - Model of the Organism o The human boy and how it all interacts o The system functions all together and all parts are necessary - Social Structure (patterns of behavior) serve specific functions o Ex. Discipline crime - Critique: what about the individual? o Comes back to the broader pattern about the individual o We are not an organism that moves in union, we are complex individual Theory of Structuration - A. Giddens - Combination of structure and agency o It is a two-way process by which we shape our social world through our individual actions and by which we are reshaped by society Habitus - P. Bourdieu - Actions of individuals are socially constrained - There are broader social ruled of engagement that we all learn and adhere to - “The notion of habitus restores to the agent a generating unifying, constructing, classifying power, while recalling that this capacity to construct social reality, itself socially constructed, is not that of a transcendental subject but of a socialized body, investing in its practice socially constructed organizing principles that are acquired in the course of a situated and dated social experience.” – Bourdieu, 2000:126-7 - In this theory, he gives agency to the individual - As individuals, you have power over yourselves - Included in that capacity, is the ability to create your own social reality, while at the same time social reality is constructed - Agency: sociological term for free will Wealth and Income Inequalities Poverty - Who are the poor in Ottawa? LICO - Low-income cut-off - Below the cut-off, people spend and disproportion of their income on food, clothing and shelter - Likely to spend 55% of their income (20% more than the average) on food, shelter and clothing - 2011: $30, 487 Unattached Individuals - 34.1% of unattached individuals o People not in families live on low income in Ottawa o Students, homeless people, seniors (people who are widows or widowers Lone Parents - 40% of lone parent families with children under 18 live in poverty Theories: - Liberalism - Conflict Theory (Marxist Theory) – used interchangeably - Functionalism Liberalism - Idea that everyone has a fair chance - Celebrates: o Equalities o Democracy o
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