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Lecture 19

Lecture 19 - Gender.docx

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University of Ottawa
Willow Scobie

SOC 1101 - Lecture 19 Monday, November 25, 2013 Gender - Sex: refers to physical differences - Gender: refers to psychological, social and cultural differences between males and females o Low levels of testosterone does not mean the individual is no longer male Role of Biology - Some researchers believe that differences between women and men are innate - Men have taken part in hunting and warfare - Are men ‘naturally’ aggressive? - In sociology, we are calling attention to the performance of gender and the assumptions that go along with that - Aggressiveness varies widely from culture to culture – the extent to which it manifests itself and its social value within that context - Also, women’s role in child bearing and child rearing – leaves them unavailable and/or a poor choice of hunting and warfare o Somebody needs to look after the children o Gender division of labour is not about capacity but necessity - Studies show that there are biological factors implicated in genetics, hormones, and brain physiology - However, theories cannot ignore the significance of the social – in both how human behavior is shaped and how it is understood Gender Socialization - The learning or male- and female-type roles and practices through social agents such as the family and the media o Toys and clothing colors that are appropriate for boy and girl babies o Expectation of behaviours amongst different genders Social Construction of Gender - Gender is a social creation - It lacks a fixed essence o Varies depending on culture o Changes across time - Feminism – belief in the social, political and economic equality of the sexes, as well as the various social movements implicated in this belief Historically, women have not been able to: - Ride bicycles - Vote - Get a credit card of sign a lease - Run a marathon - Wear pants - Join the military - Act on stage - Attend school - Join the police force - … and so much more Sex and Sexuality Early Sexuality Studies - Scholars viewed sexuality as domain whose meaning change across cultures and history - Early 1990s: o Initial studies were concerned with ‘deviance’  Understand deviant behavior  Intense urbanization: how the closeness of people affected behavior o Looked at ‘vices’ such as prostitution and pimps; also interested in homosexuality o Is
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