The concept of socialization
Socialization refers to the ways in which individuals attempt to align their own thoughts
,feelings and behavior to fit into society or groups –the process in which individuals
incorporate society into their senses of self.
Nature vs. nature debate
To interact with others, we must learn the social rules. The norms of a society/culture
which tell us those behaviors are acceptable and which are unacceptable.
The Nurture argument
Social isolation and feral children
Children deprived of human contact have limited intellectual capacities, have no or
limited experience with love or human interaction, and do not grasp language.
Sociologists believe that social reality is constructed by people every time they interact
Agents of socialization
Family, friends, school, work and relationships
Outcomes of socialization include:
Orientation towards social class
In adulthood, socialization is concerned with equipping the individual to function
effectively in adult roles:
The major roles we acquire as adults include spouse, parent, work roles, grandparent
Midlife (40-60) involves several role transitions:
Martial (divorce, widowhood)
Parental (children leave home)
Caregiver (children and aging parents)
Work entry of exit （
Activities that provide people with knowledge about, skills for, and values of a role they
have not assumed.
Usually works best for future roles that are highly visible.
Easels role transition if future roles are presented accurately
Entails goal setting, planning, and preparation for future roles.
When values and identities associated with a new role contradict those of earlier roles.
On entering a discontinuous role, we must revise our expectations and aspirations.
The Life Course
Scholars have begun to emphasize the life course in the study of the effects of life events and agents of socialization in our lives.
The life course is the process of personal change from infancy to late adulthood resulting
from personal and societal events.
History and life stage
Cohort of 1960-1965
Event Life stage implications
Economic expansion Adulthood increased employment,income,improved standard of
Terrorist attacks(2001) Middle Adulthood increased awareness of family,reordered
priorities,anxiety about health,safety
War in Iraq increased political awareness, unemployment,recession
Stage 1: achieving independence
A transition from lives centered psychologically and economically on parents to lives in
which we stand on our own.
This stage challenges us to disengage from parents and take responsibility for
Major transitions associated with this stage:
Leaving the family home
Entering the workforce
Developing a committed relationship
Becoming financially independent
Stage 2 : Balancing family and work commitments
The central challenge of this stage is to establish oneself as a stable worker,
partner/spouse and parent
During this stage:
Men tend to become increasingly caught up in their careers
Many women become increasing committed to families.
Stage 3 : Performing adult roles
In this stage, people try to meet high standards for performance in the adult roles to
which they are committed .
Common sources of stress at this stage
The awareness that one is ageing
The death of friends, families
Stage 4 : coping with loss Central challenge is to cope with a series of losses
Loss of occupational role through retirement
Loss of significant relationship through death
Eventually Loss of health
Impact of social events on the person: