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SOC1101 (732)
Sam Alvaro (155)

Socialization and social interaction

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University of Ottawa
Sam Alvaro

The concept of socialization Socialization refers to the ways in which individuals attempt to align their own thoughts ,feelings and behavior to fit into society or groups –the process in which individuals incorporate society into their senses of self. Nature vs. nature debate To interact with others, we must learn the social rules. The norms of a society/culture which tell us those behaviors are acceptable and which are unacceptable. The Nurture argument Social isolation and feral children Children deprived of human contact have limited intellectual capacities, have no or limited experience with love or human interaction, and do not grasp language. Sociologists believe that social reality is constructed by people every time they interact with others. Agents of socialization Family, friends, school, work and relationships Outcomes of socialization include: Gender role Moral development Orientation towards social class Adult Socialization In adulthood, socialization is concerned with equipping the individual to function effectively in adult roles: Role Acquisition The major roles we acquire as adults include spouse, parent, work roles, grandparent and retiree. Midlife (40-60) involves several role transitions: Martial (divorce, widowhood) Parental (children leave home) Caregiver (children and aging parents) Work entry of exit ( Anticipatory Socialization: Activities that provide people with knowledge about, skills for, and values of a role they have not assumed. Usually works best for future roles that are highly visible. Easels role transition if future roles are presented accurately Entails goal setting, planning, and preparation for future roles. Role discontinuity When values and identities associated with a new role contradict those of earlier roles. On entering a discontinuous role, we must revise our expectations and aspirations. The Life Course Scholars have begun to emphasize the life course in the study of the effects of life events and agents of socialization in our lives. The life course is the process of personal change from infancy to late adulthood resulting from personal and societal events. History and life stage Cohort of 1960-1965 Event Life stage implications Economic expansion Adulthood increased employment,income,improved standard of living (1992-2000) Terrorist attacks(2001) Middle Adulthood increased awareness of family,reordered priorities,anxiety about health,safety War in Iraq increased political awareness, unemployment,recession Stage 1: achieving independence A transition from lives centered psychologically and economically on parents to lives in which we stand on our own. This stage challenges us to disengage from parents and take responsibility for ourselves. Stage 1: Major transitions associated with this stage: Leaving the family home Finishing school Entering the workforce Developing a committed relationship Getting married Becoming financially independent Stage 2 : Balancing family and work commitments The central challenge of this stage is to establish oneself as a stable worker, partner/spouse and parent During this stage: Men tend to become increasingly caught up in their careers Many women become increasing committed to families. Stage 3 : Performing adult roles In this stage, people try to meet high standards for performance in the adult roles to which they are committed . Common sources of stress at this stage The awareness that one is ageing Physical illness The death of friends, families Stage 4 : coping with loss Central challenge is to cope with a series of losses Loss of occupational role through retirement Loss of significant relationship through death Eventually Loss of health Impact of social events on the person: Life stage
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