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Lecture 3

SOC 1101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Social Fact, Symbolic Interactionism, Anomie

Course Code
SOC 1101
Liam Kilmurray

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- Comes from Latin socius “companion” and ology “the study of”
- Emmanuel Joseph Sieyles developed the term
- Classical origins go back to Aristotle and Plato
oStated what they thought society ought to be like and not what it was
- Natural sciences began in 17th – 18th century
oBegan process of applying scientific principles to the analyses of society
oApplicable after the Industrial Revolution
- Post Enlightenment: Academic sociology emerges after and in response to rationality,
modernity, empiricism, capitalism, urbanism, emergence of states
oIndustrial revolution and emergence of capitalism are crucial
oAs new rules, new associations, new populations, new societies threw up new
issues, problems: physical, psychological, social
- Western world, rife with poverty, creativity, wealth, disease, luxury, violence
Adam Ferguson (1723 – 1816)
- Another father of sociology
- Fluent in Gaelic, English and military Chaplin
- History of civil society and Empathy as a civil binder
- Wrote on Rome and American Independence
- Humans are here to perfect Gods plan
- Society must progress, through military might and civil strength
- “Free” government but with laws and order
Auguste Comte (1798 – 1857)
- Popularized the term sociology and considered the founder
- Believed societies contained:
oSocial Statics – forces for social order and stability
oSocial Dynamics – forces for conflict and change
- Natural science applied to society
- Positivism – positive world out there that you can count and quantify
- Facts must be observed, but observation and understanding require theory
- Emphasized on interconnectedness of social elements was a forerunner of modern
Harriet Martineau (1802 – 1876)
- Made Comte’s work more accessible
- Analyzed political economy, reviewed current works
- Recently, she received credit because in her time women were not recognized with in a
male-dominated discipline
- She examined religion, politics, child-bearing, slavery, immigration in categories of race,
class and gender
- Described to have masculine intellect
Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)
- Believed that history is a continuous clash between conflicting ideas
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