3. Socialization.docx

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16 Mar 2012
Socialization: Lifelong process whereby people learn the attitudes, values and behaviour
appropriate for members of a particular culture. Is essential for individual and group
survival. We are always joining new groups and interacting with new people, which is
why it is a lifelong process. Influence your choices of behaviour, clothing, and tastes.
Primary Socialization (Basic): Social learning, which occurs from birth to adolescence.
Born knowing nothing, and develop a self identity, self control, internalizing moral
standards, understanding of social role and what is expected of people in those roles.
Secondary Socialization: social learning that occurs beyond childhood and adolescence.
Gender Socialization: the processes through which we learn to become feminine and
masculine according to the expectations current in their society.
Anticipatory Socialization: the process by which individuals prepare themselves for roles
to which they aspire by which they do not yet occupy.
Re-Socialization: the process that occurs when a new role or situation requires that a
person replace established patterns of behaviour and thought with new patterns. We can
either have this placed upon us, or choose to change our socialization.
Agents of Socialization: groups and people who influence our selfimage, attitudes and
behaviour families are the main agents. We imitate behaviour, we are praised when we
do the right thing, and reprimanded when we do something wrong.
*** Education is another, when a child goes to daycare they learn they are no longer
number 1, but one in a group with others like them, they are apart of the focus instead of
the main focus. Through school we are learning our proper place in society, once a child
enters a group beyond family there are changes in their socialization process.
Peer Group: Group of people with whom we associate, who are approximately our own
age o who have a similar social status. Moving away from our parents and looking to our
Four Points of Socialization
1. Socialization continues throughout the life cycle
2. Socialization occurs in a social context
3. Socialization is a reciprocal and cumulative process
4. Socialization involves and occurs in all of our social interactions
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George Herbert Mead
- Significant others: those individuals who are most important in the
development of self
Charles Horton Cooley
- Primary groups: small groups whose members share personal and enduring
- Looking-Glass self: concept that emphasizes the self as a product of our social
Marlene Mackie: Four Steps in Gender Socialization
1. Sex: based on external genitalia
2. Gender Assignment: at birth, newborns external genitals are examined and on this
basis, a gender label is assigned
3. Gender Identity: internalizing the label and learning to develop an appropriate
feminine or masculine identity based on that label
4. Gender Expression: how we behave expresses our learned (socialized) gender
identity (our femininity or masculinity)
Theories of Gender Socialization:
The Family as Significant Other/Primary Group
Nancy Chodorow
- A boy‟s masculine identity is developed in opposition to the women he
encounters in his early years
Joseph Pleck
- A boy‟s encounters with female care-givers prepares him for a life of power
- Men feel a life long psychological feeling to free themselves from women and
oppress women as adults because they felt oppression from women when they
were younger
Susie Orbach
- A daughter has her wings clipped to prepare them to live in a patriarchal
- Always encourage to put others before themselves
- A mother tries to hold back a daughters autonomy from a early age and is
encouraged to accept this break in her development and is supposed to put this
energy into giving and caring for others
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