Socialization: Lifelong process whereby people learn the attitudes, values and behaviour
appropriate for members of a particular culture. Is essential for individual and group
survival. We are always joining new groups and interacting with new people, which is
why it is a lifelong process. Influence your choices of behaviour, clothing, and tastes.
Primary Socialization (Basic): Social learning, which occurs from birth to adolescence.
Born knowing nothing, and develop a self identity, self control, internalizing moral
standards, understanding of social role and what is expected of people in those roles.
Secondary Socialization: social learning that occurs beyond childhood and adolescence.
Gender Socialization: the processes through which we learn to become feminine and
masculine according to the expectations current in their society.
Anticipatory Socialization: the process by which individuals prepare themselves for roles
to which they aspire by which they do not yet occupy.
Re-Socialization: the process that occurs when a new role or situation requires that a
person replace established patterns of behaviour and thought with new patterns. We can
either have this placed upon us, or choose to change our socialization.
Agents of Socialization: groups and people who influence our self–image, attitudes and
behaviour – families are the main agents. We imitate behaviour, we are praised when we
do the right thing, and reprimanded when we do something wrong.
*** Education is another, when a child goes to daycare they learn they are no longer
number 1, but one in a group with others like them, they are apart of the focus instead of
the main focus. Through school we are learning our proper place in society, once a child
enters a group beyond family there are changes in their socialization process.
Peer Group: Group of people with whom we associate, who are approximately our own
age o who have a similar social status. Moving away from our parents and looking to our
Four Points of Socialization
1. Socialization continues throughout the life cycle
2. Socialization occurs in a social context
3. Socialization is a reciprocal and cumulative process
4. Socialization involves and occurs in all of our social interactions
George Herbert Mead
- Significant others: those individuals who are most important in the
development of self
Charles Horton Cooley
- Primary groups: small groups whose members share personal and enduring
- Looking-Glass self: concept that emphasizes the self as a product of our social
Marlene Mackie: Four Steps in Gender Socialization
1. Sex: based on external genitalia
2. Gender Assignment: at birth, newborns external genitals are examined and on this
basis, a gender label is assigned
3. Gender Identity: internalizing the label and learning to develop an appropriate
feminine or masculine identity based on that label
4. Gender Expression: how we behave expresses our learned (socialized) gender
identity (our femininity or masculinity)
Theories of Gender Socialization:
The Family as Significant Other/Primary Group
- A boy‟s masculine identity is developed in opposition to the women he
encounters in his early years
- A boy‟s encounters with female care-givers prepares him for a life of power
- Men feel a life long psychological feeling to free themselves from women and
oppress women as adults because they felt oppression from women when they
- A daughter has her wings clipped to prepare them to live in a patriarchal
- Always encourage to put others before themselves
- A mother tries to hold back a daughters autonomy from a early age and is
encouraged to accept this break in her development and is supposed to put this
energy into giving and caring for others