SOC 1101 Lecture Notes - Ethnocentrism, Gender Inequality, De Jure
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Chapter 9 Review
How do race and ethnicity differ?
A race is a category of people who have been singled out as socially different
often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics, such as skin
color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected characteristics.
An ethnic group is a collection of people distinguished, by others or by
themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
Why are race and ethnicity important?
Race and ethnicity are ingrained in our consciousness. They often form the
basis of hierarchical ranking in society and determine who gets what
resources; employment, housing, education, and social services.
What is prejudice?
Prejudice is a negative attitude based on preconceived notions about
members or selected groups. Prejudice is often reinforced by stereotypes and
is present in ethnocentric attitudes.
What is discrimination and how does it differ from prejudice?
Discrimination involves actions or practices of dominant group members
that have a harmful impact on members of a subordinate group. Whereas
prejudice involves attitudes, discrimination involves actions. Discriminatory
actions range from name calling to violent actions. Discrimination can be
either de jure (encoded by law) or de facto (informal).
What is racism and what form does it take?
Racism refers to an organized set of beliefs, about the innate inferiority of
some racial groups combines with the power to discriminate on the basis of
race. There are many different ways in which racism may manifest itself
including overt racism, polite racism, subliminal racism, and institutionalized
Chapter 10 Review
How do sex and gender differ?
Sex refers to biological categories and manifestations of femaleness and
maleness; gender refers to the socially constructed differences between
females and males. In short, sex is what we (generally) are both with; gender
is what we acquire through socialization.
What are gender roles and gender identity?
Gender roles encompass the attitudes, behaviors, and activities that are
socially assigned to each sex and that are learned through socialization.
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