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Class 7. Aboriginal Issues.docx

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University of Ottawa
Liam Kilmurray

Aboriginal Issues Reading - Bystander Public: a public that defines issues strictly from a bystanders perspective; bystanders are people who have no stake in the outcome of a conflict, issue or protest, but may be effected by the dynamics that play out between political interests or mobilized groups - What bystander groups/individuals might benefit from Native Rights? - Social movement are event-driven insofar as critical events are expectations and perceptions of threats - Critical events provide opportunities to create a common political environment, frame of interest, and support for a given issue - What Native ‘events’ might fit this profile? Key Dates - 1763 – Royal Proclamation - 1830 – First civilian Department of Indian Affairs established - 1874 – First Indian Act consolidated all laws relating to native people - 1884 – The Potlatch outlawed - 1927 – Federal Government adopted articles 141 of the Indian Act prohibiting Indians from organizing to discuss land claims – an offence punishable by fines or jail - 1949 – Legislature extends provincial vote to Indians - 1960 – Canadian Indians granted right to vote in Federal elections - 1969 – Indian Affairs Minister Jean Chretien released “White Paper” which would have terminated Indian Status and rights in Canada. It was rejected. - 1980’s growing political agitation: o Zebedee Nungak: “We are here to do constructive damage to the status quo” o Phil Fontaine: “If Quebec is distinct, we are even more distinct” - 1982 - Canadian Constitution affirmed existing Aboriginal and treaty rights - 1985 – Bill C-31 enabled many non-status Indians to regain status under the Indian Act The Indian Act - Enacted by the Parliament of Canada under Section 91(24) of the Constitution Act passed in 1867, and became official legislation in 1876 - Imposed band councils - Regulated who was an Indian - How/when one received the vote Terminology - Indian: one of three groups of people recognized as Aboriginal in the Constitution Act, 1982. It specifies that Aboriginal people in Canada consists of Indians, Inuit and Metis - Indians in Canada are often referred to as: Status Indians, non-Status Indians and Treaty Indians - Status Indian: a person who is registered as an Indian under the Indian Act. The act sets out the requirements for determining who is an Indian for the purposes of the Indian Act - Non-status Indian: An Indian person who is not registered as an Indian under the Indian Act - Treaty Indian: A status Indian who belongs to a First Nation that signed a treaty with the Crown Statistics - 615 First Nations - Population = 1, 172,785 - Does not apply to the Metis, Inuit, non-status Indians - The majority of First Nations people are Status Indians, 81% of the total First Nations population - An estimated 133, 155 First Nations people were not registered under the Indian Act - Indian population is young, with an average age of 25, compared to and average of 35 years for all Canadians Ovide Mercredi - “With a population of fewer than 1 million, we know we cannot displace the alien government completely, and this is not our objective. The objective is to live together Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK) - Protested: o The disc list system (dog tag with a number) o The anti-seal movement o The environment  Oil  Mining  Low-flying jets  Dog killings
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