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Canada (509,645)
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SOC2101 (80)

Lecture 4

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Kristen Tole

Early Canadian Origin - Native and European traditions - Botanicals and bleeding – open an artery it will release all the bad things - Medicine as culturally based - Aboriginal spirituality - European tradition = “science” - Knowledge “sharing” was most often one way Who can heal? … 19 Century - Allopathic practitioners (physicians) - Homeopaths – their knowledge is totally disregarded - “Eclectics” – people were actually getting well by the allopathic practitioners so these people were disregarded - Midwives – practiced in secret without consent of the state or the allopath’s - No predominant type of healer Seeking Allopathic Dominance 1. Prohibit non allopathic practitioners from practicing 2. Licensing 3. Control admittance to allopathic practice – left up to money Why? 1. High social status 2. Influence in their communities 3. Education Responses: 1. Fear turned into anger at new health regulations/bureaucracy 2. Violence in towns and villages 3. Self-quarantine 4. Increased religiosity - Bureaucratic and political changes – sewage and water treatment - Ineffective changes – they’re making new laws but there is nobody there to enforce it - Public unwilling to pay for public health structures - New regulations are the first organized efforts towards public health sanitation - Disagreement about the causes of cholera (dirt + disease = contaminated water supply) o Germ theory (1880’s) confirmed it: you wash your hands you are not going to transfer disease - Population remained unconvinced: it changes how they have to live, can you see germs? - Effect: diminished prestige of physicians - Rise in the use of apothecaries and other types of healers - Mistrust of effectiveness of hospitals - Hospitals = the place where you sent to die - Place to house the poor “Rediscovery” of the poor - had three impacts: a) Increased economic and social support for the “deserving poor” b) Lifestyle as causes for disease c) Changes in settlement patterns (wealthy vs. poor) – the poor moved uphill, shit can’t roll up hill, wealthy lived in houses, poor in apartments and shacks Twentieth Century Canada - 1912 Canada Medical Act o Standardization of licensing procedures: for physicians and consumers - National health care on agenda: 1930’s o Insurance schemes set up by doctors’ groups o Unequal treatment, preferential towards those who could pay Additonal forces: 1. Spread of bureaucracy and monopoly capitalism o Physician as most effective medical care o Legitimacy of allopathic medicine o Rise of medical institutions (ie. changing role of hospitals) 2. Social welfare legislation o Similar policies introduced world wide 3. CMA (Canadian Medical Association) intervention o Benefits of maintaining fee-for-service, cure-oriented, hospital and technologically based medical practice - Role of physicians: o 1934 conditions of CMA:  Administered by non-political body  Choice of payment method governed by physicians  Medical control over fee scheduling  Compulsory co
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