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Lecture

Lecture 2

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC2106
Professor
Fatemeh Givechian
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 2 – January 15 2013 Paradigm: a way to look at the world, combines certain philosophical idea of what the view for something is like Is paradigm different from theory? - Theory: the offspring, a collection of ideas that explain a concept - Paradigm: mom or dad, your beliefs, paradigms can cover more than one theory Three paradigms - Positivism: o Main elements: absolutism, objectivism, determinism  Absolutism: the consequences of deviance and social problems are absolute real, not in our imagination, a homicide provides a dead body, you cannot say “oh we interpret that this person is dead”  Objectivism: objectively we can study them, it is something out there that we can study, it is not in our object minds  Determinism: when you see deviance and social problems it is caused by something else, society, body, biological aspects, psychological aspects, but it is determined by something, it is not a voluntary act that you want to commit suicide - Constructionism o They say they are not absolute real, it depends on the label we give on deviance and social problems  Ex. witch hunting: there was a time when we thought witches were deviant and we would hunt them and kill them, now if you say you want to hunt a witch you are the deviant o Main elements: relativism, subjectivism, volunteerism  Relativism: deviance and social acts depends on the society we live in, in some cultures supporting homosexuals makes you a deviant, in other societies not supporting homosexuals makes you a deviance  Subjectivism: if you label it as deviant you can study it, if you don’t you can, you need to use subjective methods to study it, use qualitative methods to study it not quantitative  Volunteerism: if you go to a party and they offer you weed, you say yes or no, you volunteer, nobody forces you to do it - Integrated view: o Depending on the act we decide if we are positivist or constructionist, if there is more public consensus that something is bad then we apply positivist ideas, but if there is less public consensus and it is a debateable topic we apply constructionist views  Child molestation: positivism, because there is more general agreement that this is a bad thing (in our society), even amongst the deviants it is not accepted, in jails they have to separate the child molesters because even the other deviants in jail are against them Methodology Main two important ways to do research on methodology in sociology are: - Quantitative research o Macro level: you study a large society o Descriptive or explanatory – they want to deal with causes and consequences (DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH) o Literature review – it is important to see what our scientific ancestors have said o Have a lot of surveys and questionnaires o Ethical aspects, confidentiality, anonymity o Overt research recommended: that you shouldn’t deceive them, but in rare cases (like when studying drug or sex traffickers) you need to do covert research o Usually involves realist style, statistical analysis  Scientific style of writing – research is done separately from you, you talk about facts only - Qualitative research o Micro level: you study a small society  Wants to talk about or discuss the viewpoints, emotions, worries of the people o They have a general idea (thesis or hypothesis), and they want to examine the general idea to prove or disprove it (INDUCTIVE RESEARCH) o Literature review – it is important to see what our scientific ancestors have said o Do a lot of observation, go to prison if you want to study prisoners o In depth interviews o Ethical aspects, confidentiality, anonymity o Overt research recommended: that you shouldn’t deceive them, but in rare cases (like when studying drug or sex traffickers) you need to do covert research o Usually involved reflexive style of writing, content analysis  Research includes your opinions, talk about exactly what you did Biological studies of deviance
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