People believe in god and all knowledge comes from gods.
Change the way of thinkingmaking observation, reason
Idea of progress
Spirit of science—doubt, reason, observation, use their reason to image a better world
French enlightenment: freedom, equality
Profound change of social and natural world
Mid/end 18 , industrial revolution in France and in Europe
The Great town: crowded, over 50% working class children die before age of 5.
Industries located inside countryside, people decide how hard they work, but all these are
replaced by factories, people work for capitalists and they move into town. The city
cannot provide all the people in.
The change in work relation and urbanization destroyed the traditional pattern of social
The breakdown in community corresponds with a decline in the ethos of aristocratic
The reaction of the working classes (rebellion)
(Individual hurt another individual’s property, no organization no group but
widespread10% crimes in city.)
2. Machine breaking
Climaxes with the Luddit movement (18111812)
(The introduction of technology lowers their wage, so they break them.
But they do not afraid technology, they do not like the way machine
replace them in workplace
Better organized—town by town, they see their enemy as these people in
capitalism that exploit them)
The combine act is passed in 1799 The act is repealed in 1824 (legalization of union)
The result is a quickening in the pace of unionization
The unions are fighting unions (not unions in today, they are the union meant to
battle, they encourage people to hate factory owners. Unions in England are outlaw.
They see the enemy now as employer class itself, like factory owner)
4. Political organization: the chartists
The “peoples charter” is drawn up in 1835
The want to change the whole things
They are well organized
They are willing to fight
The Chartists were politically active in other movements (ex. Pass new factory
act, change the 10 hours bill)
The movement is violently repressed in 1848
The general tendency
Towards greater organization and clarity of class interests.
Intellectual Responses to the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the aftermath
1. The Romantic Movement
Popularized by Rous