(20) Resisting Globalization and Deglobalization (pt.2)
Cyber-activism: Network-based social movement forms.
o Not against globalization, but global in character.
o Computer-supported social networks.
o Reactive (they react towards certain problems), unpredictable, and dynamic
Interaction across distances.
o There are both virtual and physical activities.
o Online and offline political activity.
New political activity: list-serv, chat rooms, web pages.
o ‘Web politics’.
New patterns of social engagement. Political movements are mingled with simple things
such as memes and ‘trolling’.
New publics for the circulation of alternative new and information.
Grassroots forms of media production, communication, and coordination. This is not
connected to a specific organization; it is an anarchist type of group.
Horizontal Networking Logic
Open source philosophy: digital collaboration. This notion is the heart of capitalism
Powered by dreams of post-capitalist form of political and social organization at local,
regional, and global scales.
o Generation of alternative information; other interpretations of social and scientific
facts. There is still a respect for facts and data, but mainstream media frames news
in a specific way.
o Exchange of ideas and resources.
The logic of anarchism.
‘Cultural logic of networking’:
o Horizontal ties and connections.
o Free and open circulation of information.
o Decentralized coordination.
o Self-direct networking.
At the beginnings:
o Playing pranks; acts of trolling.
o Humorous and grotesque (4Chan; /b/ section); strong meme culture.
The Hal Turner case (2006): The movement became more political.
o Freedom of speech.
o Anti-government discourse.
o Anonymity and no individual voices.
o Collaborative (share information and know how).
o Shift from pranks to hacking.
Rhizomatic character: A metaphor used to d