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Lecture 1

SOC 3116 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Montesquieu, Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, AngelPremium

6 pages71 viewsFall 2017

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 3116
Professor
Chapman
Lecture
1

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1 The Time of the Life Course
Before eerthig
- The 6s’ ideolog as oe steeped i superatural politis
o Alchemy, angelology, demonology; The Great Chain of Being; Divine Right of Kings
- Every aspect of human life, natural and social, was centered around God
o Absolute monarchies, dominance of Christianity
People were not supposed to ask questions
Expected to accept things based on faith in God
No challenging governmental authority
- The Renaissance saw the beginning of the questioning of the hegemony of Christianity that was
standing for over 1300 years (i.e. Galileo and Protestantism)
o Church tried to protect its monopoly through war, inquisition, witch burning, and heresy
trials
- Ausa Sapare Dare to think
o Changes took place between the 15th and 18th etur ith a rejetio of…
Dogma, superstition, traditional religion, and monarchy
o The world wanted to gain knowledge and wisdom to be freed from
ignorance/superstition
o Transition to new ideas in Philosophy, Art, Economics, Government, Science and
Technology
o People using reason to try to understand more about human behaviour and solve the
problems of society
o Reason, liberty, equality, fraternity, and progress
- Thinkers of the Enlightenment
Rene Descartes
The father of modern rationalism I
thik, therefore I a
Francis Bacon
Scientific method systematic
observations and careful experiments
could lead to correct principles
Isaac Newton
Natural laws can be discovered
Diderot’s elopedia
Collected Enlightenment articles in an
encyclopedia that helped to spread ideas
throughout Europe and the Americas
John Locke
Thought people were moral at heart and
were entitled to certain natural rights,
which governments were obliged to
protect
Baron de Montesquieu
Despotism could be avoided if political
power were divided. Believed in
employing three branches of government
that ould alae eah other’s poers
Voltaire
Men are equal; it is not birth but virtue
that makes the difference
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Rather than liberation, rationalism and
civilization destroys the individual
Hume
Reason cannot decipher anything about
the origins of the universe or the
existence of God
The Enlightenment
- Everything in nature could be explained by natural laws
universal truths found through observation
- A rejection of emotionalism
- The belief in progress the world can be improved upon
- People have natural rights personal freedoms that allow
people to enjoy liberty (no restrictions on speech, religion, or
the economy)
- A desire…
o For rationality, logic, consistency: the universe could
be understood through reason
o To create social standards based on reason not
tradition
- Preferee for…
o Democracy
o Civilized, polite discussion of ideas. Conclusions are
reached by intelligent debate
o Evidence instead of faith
o The artificial over the natural
Modernity
- The Great Trasforatio
o Three inter-related processes
1st the Enlightenment
2nd Industrialization
3rd Capitalism
- Modernity is about order rationality and rationalization,
creating order out of chaos
- Creating more rationality is conducive to creating more order
the more ordered a society is, the better (re: rationally) it will
function
- Modern societies rely on estalishig order s. disorder so
that the a assert the superiorit of order
- Master and meta narratives of history, culture, and national
identity
- Faith i the Grad Theor (hih sas that all eplaatios
can be found in history, science, and culture) to represent all
knowledge
- Faith in social and cultural unity hierarchies of social-class
and ethnic/national values, seemingly clear bases for unity
- Idea of the family as central unit of social order model of the
middle-class, nuclear family
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