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Lecture 9

SOC3116 Lecture 9: 10.20.2017 Childhood

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3 Major Trajectories - Education - Relationships - Work Stages of the Life Course - Infancy and childhood (0-12) - Adolescence (13-17) - Young adults/transitional adults (18-29) - Early middle years (30-49) - Later middle years (50-65) - Older years (65 and above) Socialization through the Life Course - The family o Principal socializing agent during infancy o Family systems vary widely across cultures o In modern societies (late modernity), social position is not inherited but the region and social class of family affects patterns of socialization o First providers of values, norms o Principle of linked lives will have an impact on the life course o Principle of timing - School o Provider of social norms the basics shared by the members of a society Learn to obey rules Must accept authority of teachers Reactions of teachers affect expectations children have of themselves Peer groups often formed at school o Impact of the type of school will have an effect on the life course - Peer relationships o Peer groups are increasingly important o Identity by association o Greatly influence gender socialization o Have significant effect beyond childhood - Mass media o Can be both positive and negative Violence is promulgated on television Video games may deflect from school work or other activities, become refuge from disliked school environment But may also hone skills relevant to education and wider participation I society that depends on electronic communication o Life organized around the mass media o Provider of culture and rituals - Social environment- Religious groups - Community/social organizations - Work Infancy and Childhood - In earlier time periods, children were viewed as mini0adults - Today, children are viewed as tender and innocent - Adults need to provide care, comfort, protection - Sense of self o Micro-level Families provide warmth, trust, security (trust vs. mistrust Erikson) Abuse low self-esteem, isolation, mistrust, powerlessness o Macro-level Public institutions policies and practices to promote positive childrearing Theories of Child Development - G.H. Mead o Children develop as social beings by imitating actions of those around them o Individuals develop self-consciousness by learning to see themselves as others see them o Later, by entering into and learning rules of play in organized games, children come to understand the general values and moral rules of culture - Jean Piaget o Emphasized childs active capability to make sense of the world o Stages of development Sensorimo
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