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Lecture

Technological Frame, Inclusion, and Bakelite (i)

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC3116
Professor
Stephan Larose
Semester
Winter

Description
January 29, 2014 • Recall; o RSGs; social groups who play in the development/design of an artifact, leads to interpretative flexibility to an artifact.  Women and older men vs. young men of means and nerves o Technological Determinism o Rhetorical Closure (claiming the problem has been fixed, via advertisement or campaign) vs. Redefinition of the Problem (inventing a new problem to which the artifact is the solution, ie. The invention of the air tire) o Stabilization; the development of the artifact within one social group, what is in progress when the design flexibility is diminishing—leaving a stable artifact  Ex. The existence of the couple’s tricycle and other variations before the stable artifact of the Safety Bicycle. • Stabilization of the Safety Bicycle; o By 1889, the expression safety bicycle was enough to refer to the same machine, and by 1895, bicycle was enough.  To refer to “low wheeled”, “rear-driven safety bicycles” with “diamond or cross frames,” as referred to exhibition report in 1888. o Stabilization comes to refer to who an artifact functions in society, to come to terms with what the artifact should be. o Closure and stabilization do not necessarily revolve in all rivals vanishing; sometimes two rivals can exist side-by-side;  High Wheelers existing in a niche market  Jet Planes and Propeller Planes existing side by side  Though usually, one artifact is more dominant o In early days, the car was seen as the “greener solution” to horse carriages and buggies.  By the 1960s, social groups had introduced new interpretations, which have shaped the way we see the car today.  Thus, interpretative flexibility may reappear. • No technology ever moves completely beyond “contest space” • RSGs; o Can be institutions, organizations, as well as organised/unorganised groups of people; can be citizen groups, governments, marketers, secretaries etc.  It is the job of the analyst to identify new RSGs. o Those who share a common meaning to the artifact but may share other common meanings that may not be the most essential.  The shared meaning can be used to explore a different development path.  Thus, some part of the modern bicycle development are due to perceived influence of women cyclists (ie. Safety features introduced to cater to large market of women in 19 century). • Alternatively, the introduction of larger and larger w
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