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ESP-1101 Octobre 28th, 2013.docx

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University of Ottawa
Jos� Mar�a Ruano De La Haza

th ESP-1101 October the 28 , 2013 The Reconquista: -718 Pelayo and the Battle of Covadonga -795 Charlemagne’s Spanish March (pronounced mark) -813 Discovery of St. James (bones) in Compostela -1035 End of Caliphate. Muslim civil war between Berbers and Arabs in al-Andalus -1086 Almoravids and Almohads arrive from Africa to help stem Reconquista -1078 Cathedral of Santiago is gbegun -1095-1099 First Eastern Crusade -12 century Creation of military orders -1212 Turning point: Christian victory at Navas de Tolosa -the Latin idea of a holy war against Islam, which led to the first Crusade (1095), emerged from the struggle to reconquer Spain that started after 711 -813 Bishop Theodomir discovers tomb of St. James in Compstela -according to the legend, St. James was beheaded in 42 AD -his disciples took the headless body and transported it in a boat to Galicia -the rock to which the boat was moored is preserved in the cathedral -Charlemagne, liberator of the Camino was the foremost advocate of the pilgrimage (Book IV of the Codex Calixtinus, attributed to Turpin, Archbishop of Rheims) 1035 End of the Caliphate in al-Andalus -1038-1091 Turkish expansion -First Crusade: 1095-1099 -1063 army of French knights assaults the fortress of Barbastro in Zaragoza. Pope Alexander II granted the participants a plenary indulgence (cf. crusades to holy Land, beginning 1095) “By the end of the eleventh century the church had achieved the imposition of its ideals on society” Norman F. Cantor, The Civilization of the Middle Ages. 1993, p.373 “When European Christians helped the Aragonese to seize Barbostro in1063, they proposed to subject the Muslim inhabitants to violent extortion, rape, slavery, or even death, but were restrained by the Aragonese, who told them that that was simply not the way things were done here.” Stanley Payne, Spain: a unique history -Christian kings extracted tribute (parias) from Taifas (about 3 dozen of them at one point) in some sort of “protection racket”, which made some very wealthy -El Cid (1040-1099), legendary hero of epic poem, was more like a mercenary or soldier of fortune, for hire by Christian and Muslim kings. Eventually got his own principality -Battle of Alarcos July 18, 1195: -Belligerents: -Alfonso VIII of Castille -Military orders -Almohads -Castilian calvary under Pedro Fernández de Castrom grandson of Alfonso VII -casualties and l
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