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ESP-1101 November 4th, 2013.docx

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Jos� Mar�a Ruano De La Haza

ESP-1101 November 4 , 2013 th -medieval map of the world upside down because Eden had to be at the top and it was “where” there was 4 rivers (Tigris, Euphrates, Pishon, Gihon) (Jerusalem in the center) Ethiopia, top right, India to the left, Egypt below Ethiopia, Greece middle left, Galicia (France) middle more left, Rome below France, Hibernia (Ireland) bottom center. -Beginnings of Castilian 10 c-11 century -Poema de Mío Cid (1140?) 3’735 verses -Alfonso X the Wise (1221-1284) Standardized written Castilian (13 th c. manuscript) worked with a team of scholars (Christians, Jews, Arabs, etc.) beneath him: -Siete Partidas: Code of Laws (one of 23 lawmakers in US Capitol) -initiated the use of Castilian in the court -astronomical tables (lunar crater named after him) -chess treatise -general Chronicle (history, but not necessarily like academic historians today)  built up the Goths as the true ancestors of these kings and the Christians -Cantigas de Santa María -Lapidario, etc. (properties (magical) of the stone) -employed Jewish, Muslim and Christian scholars (still favoured Christians) -cf. convivencia -Toledo School of Translators (founded 1126) Arabic to Latin (Toledo conquered in 1085) cf House of Wisdom, Baghdad 813 -preservation and transmission of knowledge: -The Library ( Alexandria Library)- 300 BC-500 AD  oral culture became written culture. Greek intellectual tradition. Used papyrus and scrolls  codices with spread of Christianity. Codex: written on both sides browsing  reflective thought becomes research source -The Monastery- 500-1100  Preserved some learning (mostly theology) through Dark Ages. Used parchment and vellum. Very expensive but it may be rewritten: palimpset -The University- 1100-1500 Renewal of knowledge. Toledo School of Translators. Crusades, economic revival, greater mobility, new towns, fairs. Used: paper introduced in Spain in 12 c. and in Europe in 13 -14 c, fulling mills; griddle with base of wire mesh; dried on the wire mesh -The Republic of Letters (Printing Press 1450)- 1500-1800  scholars shared and disseminated knowledge by means of printed books, museums and academies. Used movable type (1450’s) Sepharad: -5 c sculpture with menorah found in Ronda, Méalaga -Jewish communities in Spain shortly after diaspora (70 AD) -4 c Council of Elbira: sees them as a thrat to newly converted Chrisitans th -6 c. Visigoths persecute Jews after Reccared’s conversion: first explusions -8 -11 c. Golden Age of Judaism under the Caliphate th th -11 -14 c Jews prosper under Christian kings in north -Rabbi Moses Arragel of Guadalajara discussing a text with a Franciscan friar. Arragel translated the Old Testament from Hebrew into Spanish between 1422-1430. It is known as the Alba Bible -Pablo de Santa María: -born Solomon ha-Levi in Burgos (1351) -became a scholar of the first rank in T
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