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ESP-1101 November the 27th, 2013.docx

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Jos� Mar�a Ruano De La Haza

ESP-1101 November the 27 , 2013h -Aztec Empire: population estimates range from 5 to 25 million -isolation (arrived 1300) -enemies, semi-independent cities eastward -relatively new tribe, came from the north. They were told to settle where they saw an eagle resting on top of a cactus  Mexican flag -“Wars of flowers”: pre-arranged “friendly” battles -prisoners for sacrificed -Cortés and Tlaxcalans -Aztecs had genetically engineered corn from teostinte, although no knows how they managed to do it -same with potatoes -Bill Bryson, At Home (2010): “Potatoes are from the nightshade family, which is of course notoriously toxic, and in their wild state that are full of poisonous glycoalkaloids- the same stuff, at lower doses, that puts the zip in caffeine and nicotine…” -they managed through producing it to lower the poison content, no one knows how, or how they knew what they were doing -spies report to Moctezuma, acc. To Florentine Codex: -their food was like human flesh: white and sweet -bodies completely covered by clothes, except their white faces -eyes were like chalk -hair was often fair (Alvarado) and also black and curly -most had long beards -metal (iron) used to cover themselves or war, for swords, crossbows, shields and lances (Aztecs did not use iron, only copper silver and gold, and only used for adornment not weapons) -Spaniards estimated the population of Tenochtitlan at 500’000 -November 14: arrests Moctezuma -Cortés, letter to Charles V.Sept 1520: “Moctezuma received him as a “lsot leader” -legend of Quetzalcoatl, feathered serpent -according to Cortés, Moctezuma said: “We always held that those who descended from him would one day come back to subjugate this land and take us as vassals” -confirmation bias -Moctezuma took Cortés to the top of an Aztec pyramid, where he saw freshly extracted hearts burning in a brazier and an image of the war god Huitzilopochtli -Cortés toppled idols and placed state of Virgen Mary on top of the pyramid -forced Moctezuma to swear allegiance in front of his vassals -built a brigantine, took trips round the lake, demanded gold, took hostages and became master of Moctezuma and the city. Cortés quickly learned about the Aztec Fatalism. -Sacrificial offerings: heart, tongues, ears -April 1520: Governor Velázquez sends
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