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Lectures 1-3

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Jos� Mar�a Ruano De La Haza

ESP2102 JANUARY 7 th  Lope de Vega (1562-1635)  Fuenteovejuna Context:  Shakespeare (1564-1616)  Corneille (1606-1684)  Molière (1622-1673) Madrid theatres: - Middle Ages, began to perform religious plays - No play houses or professional companies in the Middle Ages th - 16 c. first companies of travelling players began to perform in Europe, especially in Italy (Comedia Delarte) o Platform was the cart  La Cruz (1579)  First playhouse built in Madrid  Principe (1582)  Close to La Cruz London theatres: The Theatre (1576) The Rose (1587) The Swann (1595) The Globe (1599)  Even though England and Spain were mortal enemies at this period, the traditions (theatre) were very similar to each other.  Ex. The plays performed were normally plays of action where dialogue dominated  Whereas French plays had a lot more introspection, long monologues, thinking aloud  English and Spanish theatrical traditions differed from French and Italian ones  Open-air theatres, no performances during poor weather  No artificial lighting, took place in the afternoon in daylight  Actors could see and interact with the members of the audience Paris theatres: Hotel de Bourgogne (1548) only religious dramas, until 1610 Theatre du Marais (1634) tennis court Principe theatre: - 7 doors, one main entrance exclusively for men - Performances start at 2 in the winter, 4 in the summer - Women enter through a side door (far right) - Contains offices for the administrators - Private entrance for important boxes, for distinguished people - Shop that sold sweet needs, alcoholic drink and food - One door to the men’s toilet - Four levels - All social classes attended this theatre 1 - Second level was reserved for women; they had the best seats in the house - Private box on the third level for important people like the mayor of Madrid - At the very top, another women’s enclosure small and narrow - Used for women of the lowest social class - Complaints about the women led them to be kicked out and this spot was then reserved for priests - Men would stand in the courtyard - The stage had three levels - Second level would often show walls of a castle - Houses adjacent to the theatre, rooms would be rented out to nobles called windows and boxes - Capacity was about 1000 people Fuenteovejuna (1612-1614)  “Sheep well”  Town of peasants  Berbers and tribes men from African  Cordoba, Islamic occupation, south of Spain  One of most performed plays in the history of Spain  Only play that was used for propaganda purposes by Nazis in Spain and by Communists  Became famous in Europe when in was performed in USSR in 1930  Later taken up in England by a Communist point of view as well  After civil war, when the fascists came to power, they used it for political and propaganda purposes 1. History play (historical time/performance/present) a. Action happens about 10 years before the fall of Granada/ Civil war in Castile at the time (historical context) b. Target audience (1612-1614) (performance) c. Certain aspects of performance can be used to be given a more modern interpretation (present) 2. Peasant play a. The genre at the time b. Nostalgia for the simple life of the country (maybe idealized) i. Comparisons between the duplicity and treachery in the city vs. the country c. Many beggars in overcrowded Madrid at the time, which emphasized the idealization of the country, the good life, the food 3. Action (dialogue) vs. introspection (monologue) a. Feelings of the characters was deduced by their actions 4. Plot vs. character a. This one is about plot 5. Social codes (honours, justice, feudalism, monarchy, love, race) a. Period when the play was written, and first performed, as well as the historical context of the play itself b. Justice was different between social classes c. Feudalism: pyramid at the top of which stands the King, then the nobles, guardians, peasants i. Everyone swears allegiance to the King ii. Reconquest influence, knights were given lands (protagonists are knights) d. Monarchy: until this period, Spain was divided into a series of different kingdoms i. 1492: first time that the whole of Spain was united under one monarch ii. Opposing the unification: the knighthood 2 e. Race: in the 17 c. sense of the word: a religious sense.  Ferdinand (1452-1516) and Isabella (1451-1504)  Both reigned in different regions of Spain  When they married, Spain became unified  This decided how Portugal was its own country  War of Granada (1482-1492)  Ferdinand and Isabella entered the Alhambra and took over from the Muslims  Muslims surrendered Granada  Expulsion of Moriscos (1609-1614) in Castile (1611-1614)  Treaty signed by Muslim king and Christian King promising to be tolerant of the religious practices of the Muslims and to not destroy their mosques  Forced conversion of the Muslims (and the Jews) who had remained in Spain  Inquisition  After the forced conversion, many didn’t believed that the converted Muslims had really converted  Moriscos were the peasants; their expulsion had great economic consequences in Spain, especially agriculture TH JANUARY 9 Chronology 1. Hispania (200 BCE-200CE) a. Province of the Roman Empire b. Latin was the predominating language 2. Visigoths (400-711) a. Germanic invasions b. They brought the idea of feudalism (class of knights) 3. Islam (711-1010) a. Glory of Al-Andalus b. Remnants of Visigoths (Christians) in the North of Spain began a process of Reconquest of the peninsula c. Crusades (Master of Calatrava is a crusader) Military Orders  Master is the head of the order  Commander is the second in command 1. Templars (1118); Calatrava (1164) a. Started in the temple of Jerusalem during the first crusade b. French Knight had idea to create order of warriors, that were also Monks c. To protect temple of Jerusalem, and all the roads that led there (used by pilgrims) d. Similar crusade in Spain (war against Islam) i. The supposed site of the burial of St James (apostle), Santiago de Compostela 2. Santiago and Alcantara (1175-77) a. The Knighthood of St James i. Character in the play always appears with the catholic monarchs (Ferdinand and Isabella) ii. Before 1492, Spain was fragmented (Christian kingdoms in the north and Islamic kingdoms in the South) iii. South populated by Muslim people, so the Spanish put the knighthood in charge in the south, to protect against the Muslim warriors and kings in the south 3 iv. When Spain was finally united, these orders of knights became redundant, and were a problem for the unification of Spain. These knights were very powerful. The monarchy against the military orders, in particular the order of Calatrava v. In the play, the monarchy establishes its authority and unifies Spain against the opposition of Calatrava 3. Role during the Reconquista a. To hold all the lands in Spain (encomienda) b. The King of Castile told the military order to conquer lands, and hold them, while the King would command it through one of the knights (master). They would be master of all that land as well as the people in it. c. Encomienda system, was later extended into America when Cortes came to Mexico (he was Master through the King of Spain)  What is scene in the play is the last phase of the Reconquest  Catalonia was far more influenced by France Order of Calatrava - Named after castle recovered from Muslim king 1147 - Its defense entrusted to the Templars o Templars unable to hold it - Raymond, Abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Fitero offers to defend it. - Monastic Order of Chivalry: (knights and monks) o Took a vow of chastity, poverty and obedience (because they were monks) o Silence in the refectory, dormitory, and oratory.  Someone would read to them, helped with the conservation of many important books (and they would be copied) o Abstinence on four days a week, besides several fast days during the year. o Sleep in their armour o Wear, as their full dress, white mantle with the scarlet cross fleur de lys - In the play, we see depletion of the knighthood orders o Knights had become corrupt  Fuenteovejuna is North of Cordoba (Muslim capital before), South of Ciudad Real  Almagro is the capital of the knighthood of Calatrava  The Civil War: Juan 2 was a Spanish King who married twice  Maria of Aragon and Isabel of Portugal  Enrique 4 (son of Maria and Juan 2)  He was impotent  Isabel of Portugal and Juan 2  Kids: Alfonso and Isabella (Queen Isabella, catholic monarch)  Enrique was the heir to the throne, and Isabella was the only one left (Alfonso died)  Enrique married twice (Blanca of Navarre and Juana of Portugal)  Juana had an affair, and had a daughter Juana la Beltraneja  Isabella is Juana’s aunt, but Juana is supposedly the direct heiress of the King (she was part of an alliance with Portugal)  Isabella had support from Aragon  Isabella married the Ferdinand and Juana married the king of Portugal  Juana and Isabella were the two potential Queens of Castile  Hence, Castile and Aragon came together as Spain 4  Play is so important for the people who first watched it, because it showed an explanation of how these alliances came to be  The two orders of knighthood: bad guys supported Juana and good guys supported Isabella  The peasants of Fuenteovejuna are in between the two blocks (queens), had to decide who they supported Two historical events Fuenteovejuna and Ciudad Real - 1460. King Enrique IV “commends” Fuenteovejuna to Master of Calatrava, Pedro Giron, Rodrigo’s uncle. o Rodrigo is the Master of Calatrava in the play - 1474. Death of Enrique IV and beginning the War of Succession (Civil War) o He recognizes Juana as his legitimate heir - 1475. Alfonso V of Portugal marries Juana la Beltraneja o King of Portugal wanted Castile because Castile came with Al-Andalus - 1476 (in the play). Rodrigo Tellez Giron (he is very young), new Maste
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