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ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Zygote, Base Pair, Industrial Revolution

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Heather Miller

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Chapter 2 Lecture
Focus on the lecture notes for this chapter
Scientific Method Reprise
Definition of “Theory”
Theory a well-established and generally accepted explanation (an accepted
hypothesis) which
o Has been well-supported by testing
o Explain ALL existing facts, and
o Can provide predictions about new data
History of Evolutionary Theory
Biocultural process (all animals and plants)
Evolution change in the genetic structure of a population from one
generation to the next
Involves the development of species but also within population
Evolutionary theory is a European development
Do not need to know people for the text only people mentioned in both the
lectures and textbook readings
History-Necessary Background Developments
1. Experimental science and hypothesis testing
Philosophers developed logical reasoning
Golden age of experimental science comes from the medieval and Islamic
civilizations (1000 years ago)
Used hypothetical testing for the natural world 1700s 1800s A.D two
Lyell is known as the father of geology
He refines theories and makes them clear and ties them together
Two concepts that geologists developed:
2. Uniformitarianism (not catastrophism) Lyell
Similarities and processes
Prophecies happening in the present (yearly snow melt, volcanoes) could
be used to explain deposits from the past (important concept)
3. Time depth of Earth Lyell
The second thing they observed is that the earth is million years old
4. Classification (taxonomy) including recognition of humans = Animals
Linneaus: Homo sapiens
Enormous diversities of plants and animals what is more closely related
to what
Started to form groups and classify things
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Developed the concept of species (group of organisms reproducing
Linneaus included humans in the group of animals
Radical idea for that time period as human were not part of that and just
separate from the natural world
Linneaus explained that humans are part of the natural world
5. Change within species over time
As opposed to fixity to species, argument by design
New concepts that are now different from the past
6. Attempts to explain evolutionary processes, stressing effects of
environmental change Lamarck
Coining the term biology as a science based on the study of living
organisms with evolutionary change as the central concept
Lamarck is the father of biology who created concept
French father who attempts to explain the new concepts of biology and
what is causing them
First to say that it has something to do with environmental changes
where speciation is coming from
** Differences between Lamarck and Darwin-Wallace why natural selection is so
Lamarck: Inheritance of acquired characteristics requires variation to arise
when it is needed (incorrect)
o When you need to have longer necks, they will pass it on to their
o Acquire characteristics cannot be passed on and cannot be inherited
Darwin & Wallace (Theory of Natural Selection): Evolution requires that
variation already exists
o Say some giraffes are born with long necks and others are born with
shorter necks
o Evolution requires you have variation in the population
Figure 2-3, p.24
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