ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Probability Distribution, Punnett Square, Cell Nucleus

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Published on 31 Jan 2013
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Department
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Lecture Chapter 3
Background Biology: Cells, DNA
Reprise from Monday
Two types of Cells
Somatic Cells
o All cells excluding sex cells
o All somatic cells have the same genetic information
Gametes Zygote
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
Structure Fig. 3-2
Functions
o Replication Fig. 3-3
o Protein Synthesis (with mRNA)
** Differences in the organisms is the sequence of genes …
Base pairs: A&T, C&G
U instead of T; triplet code (for mRNA)
Gene = Sequence of DNA
Regulatory Genes
o That produce proteins that influence other genes
o Send a message to the cell to be turned on (only a small part is turned
on)
Mutation
o Change in the DNA
o Either a change in the sequence of bases or a change in the structure
and number of chromosomes
Genes and mutations are important they lack the production of proteins
Proteins are important in the function of the organism (ie. they affect the
regulation of system)
Influence proteins that affect the organism develops from a zygote and the
way they function
Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis
Chromosomes
Figure 3-8
Chromosomes are cellular structures
Chromosomes are DNA wrapped around formed
Only found in cell nuclei
Normally, not during division, when they are unwrapped and lose, they are
just one giant DNA molecule composed of thousands of genes 3 billion base
pairs
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During cell division is when chromosomes become more visible under light
microscope
Figure shows a gigantic large wrapped chromosome a lot of potential DNA
coded
DNA molecule itself is a double helix
Chromosomes duplicate themselves during cellular division
Before they separate, there are two identical and attached together at the
centromere
Chromosome Sets
Chromosomes are organized into set
Humans have 23 non-identical pairs (because they are coming from different
parents), but code for the same trait
22 pairs are autosomes code for the same trait and contain all information
for physical characteristics expect for primary sex determination
On the 23rd pair are sex chromosomes determine the sex of the organism
For autosomes, you need to have all 22 pairs (both pairs) or the organism
will never become created
Zygotes can become organisms and survive with only one sex chromosome
(not a typical organism, but still functional)
Mitosis
Figure 3-9
Figure 3-11 (all we need to know this amount of the figure)
Occurs in somatic cells
Simple cell division to produce two daughter cells having the exact copy of
the original somatic cell
46 chromosomes each (in humans)
Used to produce new cells so the organism can grow and develop
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