ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Cladistics, Encephalization, Species Problem

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1 Feb 2013
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Chapter 5 Lecture
Macroevolution
Classification
Two major organizing principles
Geological time scale
Formal biological classification
o To reduce the complexity (so its manageable)
o To show evolutionary relationships
Classification Terminology
Traditionally based on similarities of organisms
Similarities must reflect evolutionary decent
Homologies similarities between species and organism based on common
ancestor
o Crocodile and mouse
Analogies similarities between species and organisms based on common
functions
o ie. bird and bat
Ancestral and Derivative
For evolutionary studies, they need characters which are BOTH
o Homologous within the larger group
o Derivative between groups
Approaches to Classification
Evolutionary Systematics
Cladistics
Biological anthropologists use both in different ways
Genus and Species Complications for Ancient Organisms
Biological Species Concept and Paleospecies
Mammals and Mammalian Evolution
Cenozoic Epoch = Age of Mammals
Success due to learning and flexible behavior based on:
o Larger brains (encephalization)
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