ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Oligocene, Cenozoic, Paleocene

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Discovering the human place in the organic world. Classification one way to scientifically deal with all this diversity; organizes it into categories and indicates evolutionary relationships. Within the kingdom animalia there are 20 major groups called phyla. Chordata one of the phyla; includes all animals with a nerve cord, gill slits, supporting cord along the back. Most vertebrates are chordatas: developed brain, paired sensory structures for smell, balance, subdivided into 5 classes, cartilaginous fishes, bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals. Major evolutionary modifications in structures occur with minor genetic changes. Homologies similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor. Analogies similarities between organisms based strictly on common function with no assumed common evolutionary descent. Homoplasy the separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms. Last 2 decades, hypothesis birds are closely related to some dinosaurs, as they did not believe that at all before. Speciation process by which a new species evolves from an earlier species.

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