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ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Paleolithic Europe, Spear-Thrower, Paranthropus

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Heather Miller

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Lecture - Chapter 12
Homo Sapiens (AMH)
(Anatomically Modern Humans)
AMH is used to get around all the issue of what exact species we are talking
Time and Place From at least: (figure 12-7)
200, 000 ya in Africa
o Figure 12-1
o Smaller brow ridges, bigger cranium
120, 000 ya in Near East/West Asia
o Figure 12-3
40, 000 ya in Europe & East Asia
40, 000 OR 15, 000 ya in Australia to the present
Morphological Characteristics
Distinct chin
Round skull
o Some of the older H. sapiens are a little thicker
Vertical face
o Eye forward head
Pyramidal mastoid process
o Characteristic of Homo sapiens
Less brow ridge
Figure 12-3
What is a species?
Definitions (page 103-106)
Speciation process of separation into new species from an ancestral
o Often based on initial geographic separation (by mountains, distance,
deserts etc.)
o Can’t interbreed no more, genetic drift
Biological species populations that can interbreed with each other and
produce fertile offspring
o H. Neanderthal and H. sapien did produce offspring (Since there DNA
is found in us)
Paleospecies species defined from fossil evidence (page 105)
o Neanderthal was becoming their own species (either biologically,
physically, geographically) they did not interrupt much
o At one point however, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens did
interbreed at one point in time

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What happened with Homo line?
Page 275-277
Figure 11-22
o Upper chart shows a “lumping” tradition
o Group of species in some fashion related to each other where
Neanderthals are separated in their own line
o The lower chart, shows a much more splitting biological species of
what our species were
o Separate different species and their ancestral links are based on
specimens we haven’t found yet
Transition Models: Process of Evolution from Premoderns to H. sapiens
How do we look at the evolution process from premoderns to h. sapiens?
Paleoanthropologists do is make models based on evidence and later
compare to more recent evidence later on
In all of these models, theres the recognition that premodern and modern
humans overlap
Two questions the model asks:
Does evolution occur outside of Africa? (transition into H. sapiens)
Is there any interbreeding between premoderns and moderns
Regional Continuity: Multi-Regional Evolution Model proposes:
Evolution in Africa, Asia and Europe
o Premodern populations evolved into H. sapien like species
Significant interbreeding premods & modern AND Significant interbreeding
across all regions
o The only way this works is if a lot of interbreeding occurred between
these groups
o At least all the moderns have to be able to interbreed with each other
across an enormous region
Premoderns & moderns all a single biological species (Archaic & modern
Homo sapiens)
o They have to be the same species in order to interbreed frequently
Not widely used anymore
o Doesn’t seem to fit the data anymore
Complete Replacement Model proposes:
Evolve in Africa, migrate out
o AMH arose in Africa in the last 200,000 ya and migrate to Asia and
o There is no evolution to H. sapien outside of Africa
NO interbreeding (or very little)
o Between moderns and premoderns
Premoderns completely different biological species, NOT Homo sapiens
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