ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Beringia, Paleo-Indians, Genetic Drift

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20 Mar 2013
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Lecture Chapter 13
Upper Paleolithic/ Late Stone Age Review
The Upper Paleolithic last from before 40,000 12,000 ya
During the end of this period, people come into the American
Populations are very small of hunter-gatherers
In the northern regions, the climate is cold (like the classic “Ice Age”)
There is a diversity of local adaptations
Many tool traditions blades made of highly prepared cores; pressure flake
points are quite distinctive part of compacted tools
Tools for hunting in a distance abilities of these hunters to hunt effectively
(ie. in farther distances)
The use of bone, ivory and antler are used to make tools, they are light,
tough, durable and also used to make other objects (bead, ornaments)
We see the first stone, twined fiber clothing, basketry, ornaments and body
decorations
We see the domestication of the dog (not as food, but for other purposes)
We see burials with grave goods,
Overall, we see a diversity of adaptations to environments and styles (images
they use and make things)
See an increasing attention to abstract concepts for communication
The EARLIEST AMERICANS
Where were they? What were they like?
There is evidence that the first people were from Eastern Asia
Origins in Eastern Asia (where?)
Geographical Evidence
o Beringia Land Bridge (between Siberia and Alaska) during 2 time
periods. People could walk across and did walk across. (due to sea
water levels being low). It was the only land route that ever existed
between the Old World and New World.
o Pacific Coastal Island Hopping you could take small boats or rafts,
and sailing right beside the land (with are now currently underwater,
except for some that are now islands in the California coast).
Cultural Evidence
o Is not quite as strong as we would like
o Yana RHS site + others
Physical/ Genetic Evidence
o Morphology there is only about a dozen skeletons, therefore we
cannot get population data. However, in general these first skeletons
are now a generalize type.
o Genetic Ancient populations very small sample, but so far with
evidence we have, (1) these ancient DNA matches modern North
American population (2) ancient DNA supports an East Asian origin
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o Genetic Modern population (pg. 317) shows (1) First Nations
group showed definite signs of genetic drift and blood type of modern
native Americans, have a high variation of OO type (not found in Asia
therefore genetic drift)
Modern native populations in America are more closely related to eastern
Asians.
OVEALL: all lines of data support EAST ASIAN origin for first populations to
settle in Americas
Time of Arrival (when?)
Physical/ Genetic Evidence
o Post 35, 000 ya H. sapiens only
o There is absolutely no evidence that there has been any species here
except H. sapiens
Geographical Evidence
o Beringia + Ice Free Corridor after 13, 500 (p. 310-312) last
paragraph sums up the idea.
o Pacific Coastal Route (Boats/rafts) coastal resources by 16, 000 ya
(p. 312-314) we know that they had boats or rafts of some kind,
because there is evidence of them in Australia and the only way to get
there was to go across the coast
o The sites they followed, (1) any ice free corridor sites, were likely
destroyed by the glacial, and (2) coastal sites are not underwater
Cultural Evidence
o Linguistics
o Try to estimate when languages separated
o Linguistics analysits said that the first group of people can into the
Americas 18,000 ya. Also suggested later wave of people from Asian
came 9,000 ya (Askabaskin speakers)
Current Consensus:
o ca. 16, 000 ya (or earlier) with rapid expansion (especially down the
coast)
Earliest Evidence in America “Pre-Paleo-Indian” sites)
Monte Verde, S. American (the MOST IMPORANT)
o Page 319
o Verified pre=13,500 ya = ca. 14,500 ya = pre-Paleo-Indian
o Amazing preservation that are almost 14,000 years old
o This site was so amazing that the timing was so controversial
Debra L. Friedkin site, Texas, N. Am (also Important)
o Pre-Paleo-Indian tools stratified below Paleo-Indian artifacts
(between 15,500 and 13,200 ya)
o Evidence for development of Clovis
o Butter-milk creek (used to be called this)
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