ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Plants And Animals, Neolithic Revolution, Selective Breeding

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27 Mar 2013
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Chapter 14 Lecture Notes
Food Production (“Neolithic Revolution”)
In Europe and Asia, they use the term Neolithic to refer to this time period
Definitions
Domestication
o Evolutionary process (things happened to plants and animals)
o Page 343
o Genetic and phenotypic changes in plant and animal species, not
through natural selection, but through artificial selection by humans.
o Changes that result in the plant or animal becoming dependent on
humans to reproduce and survive effectively
Cultivation
o People encouraging the growth and the reproduction of particular
plants by: planting them in favorable locations and possibly giving
them water
o Plants might or might not be domesticated (dependent on humans)
Agriculture
o Page 343
o It is a specific type of cultivation
o The encouragement of growth and reproduction of domesticated
plants
o Farming is another term people use for agriculture
Domestication is about changes in the plant or animal genotype &
phenotype (evolutionary process)
Cultivation & Agriculture are about changes in human behavior (cultural
process)
What Happens? (In general)
Subsistence
o Concentrate on fewer species of plants and animals
o Narrowing of diet
o They still might eat a lot of things (including non domestic thing) but
the bulk of their diet focuses on few domesticated plants or animals
o Opposite of Mesolithic groups (where their diet was broadening)
Settlement
o Big decrease in mobility
o There is no individual ownership of the land, community owns the
land
o Building of more permanent house structures
o Start to see more Cemeteries in communities
o Start to see more use of pottery
Material Culture
o Pottery can be used for food (pots) or for individualized identification
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