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Lecture 1

ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Smooth Muscle Tissue, Epithelium, Gross Anatomy


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT101H5
Professor
Sherry Fukuzawa
Lecture
1

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Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Section 1: Anatomy and physiology in perspective
Module 1.1- Focused study is the importance for learning anatomy and physiology
Human anatomy and physiology considers how the human body performs the functions
that keep you alive and alert.
The “black box” in science is referred when we know what something does but we don’t
know how.
Homeostasis is a relative constant internal environment.
Module 1.2- Biology is the study of life
*All living things perform 4 basic functions:
- Respond to changes in the environment
- Adapt to stimuli
- Grow and reproduce
- Movement (process is known as locomotion)
These four functions are active processes that require energy.
*Respiration, circulation, digestion and excretion are also characteristics of living
organisms but the process depends on the size and complexity of the organism.
For very small organisms, respiration, absorption and excretion involve simply
transferring materials across a surface. But in larger organisms this is not possible
therefore each process is performed in different portions of the body. In order to transport
materials from one place to another, an internal circulatory system is needed and is found
in most animals.
*Refer to page 5 for chart in detail
Module 1.3- Anatomy is the study of structure and physiology is the study of function
Anatomy means, “cutting open”. It’s the study of internal and external structures of the
body and physical relationships among body parts.
There are two types of anatomy:
- Gross anatomy (macroscopic anatomy)
- Microscopic anatomy
Gross anatomy involves the examination of large structures and features that are visible
to the unaided eye. (E.g. the heart)

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Microscopic anatomy deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification.
You may use a light microscope that shows basic details or an electron microscope that
shows individual molecules. (E.g. tissue)
Physiology is the study of function and how organisms perform their vital functions.
All specific functions are performed by specific structures. This is the link between
anatomy and physiology.
The heartbeat is coordinated by electrical events within the heart muscle. A record of
these electrical events is called an electrocardiogram (ECG).
As the heart beats, pressure rises and falls within major arteries and chambers of the
heart. Vessel damage is caused by high pressure and vessel collapse is caused by low
pressure. This is why blood pressure in major arteries must be maintained.
Module 1.4- Structure and function are interrelated
Physiology and anatomy are interrelated both in theory and in practice. Anatomy details
are significant only because each has an effect on function.
An elbow joint functions like a hinge. You are able to move your forearm towards and
away from your shoulder. Twisting at the actual joint is not possible because of these
functional limits in internal structures.
The end of the humerus (upper arm bone) has a cylindrical surface. This end fits into a
deep depression at the end of the ulna (larger of the two bones in the forearm). This is an
interlocking arrangement, which is stabilized by ligaments, and surrounding muscles.
Only hinge like movement is possible.
The relationship between structure and function applies at the chemical level. An example
of this physiological mechanisms is how chemical messengers depend on their three
dimensional shapes to bind with cellular receptors.
Section 2: Levels of organization
Module 1.5- The human body has multiple interdependent levels of organization
The human body is complex. The complexity represents levels of organization. Each
level is more complex than the underlying one.
There are six levels in this organization (smallest to largest):
- Chemical level
- Cellular level
- Tissue level
- Organ level

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- Organ system level
- Organism level
Atoms are the smallest stable units of matter, combined they form molecules.
Cells are the smallest living units in the body. Their functions depend on organelles. (E.g.
one organelle may provide the energy that powers the contractions of muscle cells in the
heart)
A tissue is a group of cells and cell products working together to perform one specific
function. (E.g. heart muscle cells form cardiac muscle tissue)
An organ consists of two or more tissues working to perform several functions. (E.g.
layers of heart muscle tissue in combination with connective tissue form the wall of the
heart)
Organs interact in organ systems. (E.g. Together the heart, blood an blood vessels form
the cardiovascular system)
An organism in this case is a human. All levels work together to maintain life and health.
Module 1.6- Cells are the smallest units of life
*The human body contains about 200 different cell types. The dimensions of cells are
usually given in terms of micrometers. One micrometer is one millionth of a meter.
Muscle cells are long and slender.
Blood cells are flattened disks (red) or roughly spherical (white). Red blood cells
transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. White blood cells fight off infection.
Bone cells live inside a small cavity inside the mass of a bone. They recycle calcium and
phosphate.
Fat cells spherical storage containers. The excess energy obtained from the food gets
stored as fat. They get larger and more numerous.
Cells in the digestive tract are relatively delicate. They absorb nutrients, vitamins etc.
Reproductive cells are called sex cells.
Nerve cells (neurons) are like computer chips. They process information. Interactions
among neurons are a part of thought, memory, and consciousness. Extensive branching
provides a good surface area for communicating with other neurons.
*Refer to page 12 and 13 for pictures.
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