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Lecture 3

ANT101H5 Lecture 3: Lec 3 & 4 [human diversity & primates].docx


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT101H5
Professor
Sherry Fukuzawa
Lecture
3

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ANT101
May.20th.2014
Human Diversity
***Quiz on May.27th : Ch.1-4, 6-7 --- 30MC
History of the study of human variation
Linneaus 1758 (Binomial nomenclature)
-Tried to extend classifications within our own race
Classificatory:
Separated humans into 5 categories (based on similar/not similar traits; cultural biases)
-Americanus: red, thick black hair,
-Europaeus: white, serious, blonde hair, blue eyes, inventive, strong, wears tight clothing
-Asiaticus: yellow, dark eyes, ruled by opinions,
-Afer: black, ruled by capris
-Monstrosus: monstrous, deformed
Count de Buffon “Varieties of the Human Species” (1749)
-Tried to stay away from categorizing with different traits, actually used a travel log; used
unity of human race. Important because he didn’t put into specific categories, focus on
the unity of species but cultural biases still played a role
-Descriptive
-Rejected classifications
-Emphasized unity of species
-Behavioral & cultural biases
Problems in classifying humans
-Humans are both the investigators & subjects
-Inequalities & injustices
Eugenics
-Goal was for the betterment of the human species by the selective breeding for
favorable traits
-Use scientific principles of natural selection to promote selective breeding
-Discourage harmful/less beneficial traits so everyone will inherit the advantageous
genes
Important figures in Eugenics
Francis Galton
-Published a volume in 1869: “Heredity Genius”
-Prominence is inborn
Statistics
Used biology to reinforce social prejudices
Charles Davenport
-1911 “Heredity in relation to eugenics”
Suggested that criminal is an inherited trait; believed that utopia could be created
if less desirable traits are discouraged

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-Established eugenics in US scientific program
How was eugenics to be carried out?
-Restriction of immigration
-Restriction of the propagation of undesirable heritable traits
Prominence was a undesirable trait
-Encouragement of breeding between individuals with desirable genetic traits
-Eugenics took hold in National Socialist Germany
-Remove ” phebo-minded “ and there will be utopia ;
-Use biological evidence to promote natural selection
-Adolf Hitler used this idea to set up the genocide to wipe out what he deemed to be the
“undesirable” to create a better society
Ernest Hooton
-Broke from eugenics movement
-Polymorphism
a species with alternative forms (alleles) of particular genes
Polytypism
-The study of differences between groups
-Polymorphic species is divided into geographically dispersed populations
-The expression on genetic variants in different frequencies in different populations of a
species
Distinction between racial & racist studies
Racial
-Examinations of biological differences among human groups
-A continuum between groups
Racist
-Biological differences among human groups to reinforce social divisions
-According to the phenotypic traits
Carleton Coon
-“The Origins of Races” 1963
-Divided modern humans into 5 subspecies
oBelieved that they evolved at a different time
oCaucasians’ first, Nigrons last, and the rest in between
-Suggested that they existed since middle Pleistocene
-Criticisms
Inferring race from fossils
Using cultural criteria to rank races
Inferring different times for becoming human
Synthetic Theory of Evolution

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-Bringing together of Darwinian natural selection & Mendelian genetics
Population genetics
Human diversity a result of micro-evolutionary forces acting on human gene pool
3 forces
-Natural selection
-Genetic drift
-Gene flow
Human Polymorphisms
Traits that differ in expression between populations & individuals.
1. Genetic Pathologies
-Genetic diseases
2. Human Biochemical Polymorphisms
-Blood cell antigens (ABO)
-Cellular recognition processes (HLA)
-Miscellaneous variant forms of enzymes
-Mitochondrial DNA (only females pass on this DNA; daughters; can only be changed
by mutation; we can trap back in time with this DNA)
-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphisms)
3. Genetics of the Individual
-Human Genome Project
-Human Genome Diversity Project
Basic Environmental Variables
(MUST READ TEXTBOOK FOR THIS SECTION: race, environmental variables)
1. Thermal environment
-Sweating
Ex: people who live near equator vs far from the equator
-Vasodilation vs vasoconstriction
-Body proportions
Larger surface area dissipates the most heat
Larger body mass retains heat
Bergmann’s Rule: deals with body mass; live in cold environment; allows you to retain
heat; greater body mass to retain heat;
Allen’s Rule (for Africa---HOT country): deals with surface area; larger surface area in
hot environment; elongated appendixes, so longer limbs; allows you to dissipate heat
2. Oxygen
-High altitude - reduced barometric pressure (less concentrated not less oxygen)
Often have a barrel chest for people who live in higher altitudes;
-Hypoxia
-Transport & utilize O2 more efficiently
-Increased RBC production (in moderate altitude)
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