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Lecture 1

ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Melanocyte, Old World Monkey, Alloparenting

Course Code
Sherry Fukuzawa

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Introduction to biological Anthropology and Archaeology
Anthropology: study of the human experience from multiple perspectives,
- holistic approach to humankind.
- encompasses both culture and biology = bicultural evolution
The biological Approach
Culture: human behaviour that is learned and shared by members of a society. Not biologically
Includes technology, social roles, language, traditions, religion
Enculturation: children learning the values and beliefs of the family, peers and society
Evolution: a change in the genetic makeup of a population from one generation to another
Hominin: Belongs to the tribe Hominini, evolutionary group that includes modern and
humans and now extinct bipedal relatives
Primates: members of the mammalian order primates; includes prosimians, monkeys,
apes and humans
What is the central paradigm of all subfields anthropology: Culture!
4 MAIN Subfields of Anthro:
1) Sociocultural: study of human behaviour: Ethnographies (observations or description of
human groups and behaviours). Ethnography is traditionally the study of non western
societies. It is a detailed descriptive study of humans.
Subfields of Cultural Anthropology:
- Urban anthro: deals with issues of inner cities(immigration, poverty, health care, elderly)
-Medical Anthro: explores relationship between culture and health/disease
-Applied anthro: practical applications
- Cross Cultural studies: (ethnologies).
Ethnology: compares different groups.
2) Linguistics: The study of human speech and language: includes both the origins of
language in general and analysis of specific languages.
- There is an intricate link between languages with culture.

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3) Archaeology: Study of material remains left by cultures, primarily of the past, such as:
Pre-historical, historical, public archaeology.
-Material remains: books, clothes, technology, bodies: Archaeologists can do an analysis and
come up with a whole book of civilization of our lives. Archaeology is always being created: for
ex. Garbage.
-Material culture: physical manifestations of human activities e.g. tools, art and strugures
Garbage says a lot about what you are and what you do. For ex. finding beer bottles, alcohol etc.
describes human behaviour.
-Archaeology DO NOT study the fossils of nonprimate species
Public archaeologists are involved in CRM (Cultural resource management)
-CRM = evaluate sites that may be threatened with damage from development/construction;
enviro research
Kinds of Archaeology:
Classical arch.: study classical civilizations e.g. romans, greeks
Anthro arch.: (dealt with in book) application of arch. Methods to the understanding of
the origins & diversity of humans
Ethnoarch.: blur past-present dichotomy; conduct research on modern humans
Archaemetry: work with chemists, and scientists for analysis of ancient mateirals
Experimental arch.: attempt to replicate ancient techniques and processes
4) Biological/physical Anthropology: Biological study of humans and their relatives
within the framework of evolution and its relationship to culture.
Anthropometry or Osteometry: measurement of human body parts
Subfields of Physical anthropology (same as biological anthro):
1) Paleoanthropology: study of human evolution, particularly through fossil remains.
2) Molecular anthropology: Genetics is crucial to understanding evolutionary relationships.
3) Primatology: Study of non-human primate behaviour and biology.
Primate paleontology: study of primate fossil record
4) Osteology: Study of modern human skeletons and bone biology and physiology.
5 subfields of osteology:
1) Population relationships
2) Palaeonutrition (paleo means old, therefore, old nutrition): determination of diatary
components of ancient populations.

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- 2 methods: Biochemical analysis and Nutritional deficiencies determination of dietary
components of bones.
3) Palaeodemography (Old demography): Study of the structure of populations. ex. age of death,
sex ratio, population.
4) Palaeopathalogy (Old examination of diseases): determination and quantification of morbid
conditions and that leave evidence on bone. Bone has a unique quality of healing itself.
Anti mortem - Time before death
Post mortem - trauma after death.
Peri-mortem - Time around the death.
5) Forensic Anthropology:
- Recovery and analysis of skeletonised human remains for law enforcement agencies,
particularly in the identification of victims.
3 investigative areas are:
1) suspicious death
2) Mass disasters (plane crashes, limited number of remains. Usually don't get entire remains,
just pieces. You can find out aspects of individual through their remains).
3) Political atrocities.
Applied Anthropology: (applies knowledge and experience and everything, to help solve real
world problems):
- application of anthropological principles and research in other fields.
- Practical use of knowledge and expertise of anthropology.
ANT101 Biology & Evolution
A Brief History of the Development of Thought on Human Evolution
Human ancestors evolved from a species that lived 5-8mya
oThat ancestral species was the LAST COMMON ANCESTOR we share with
Many evolutionary radicals were atheists and socialists; therefore people associate
evolution with atheism and political subversion
Fitness = measure of reproductive success
1. Origin Myths (all human cultures have an origin, every human has an explanation of their
origin) ultimate product of creation.
All human cultures seem to have a theory of belief surrounding the origins of humans
Every origin myth places humans at the ultimate product of that creation.
Universal Explanations
How humans came into existence
Relationship of humans & other animals (explanation of relationship with human
and other animals)
How humans are the ultimate products of creation
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