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Lecture 2

ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Quantitative Trait Locus, Mitosis, Meiosis


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT101H5
Professor
Sherry Fukuzawa
Lecture
2

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1. Origin Myths
-All cultures have a creation of origin myth, all have explanation that
surrounds our origins (where we come from) tend to encompass the same
concept; some type of explanation of our relationship to other animals
-Almost all origin myths place humans in some kind of relationship with
other organisms or animals
-Humans are ultimate product of this creation
-All explain how humans came into existence
-Even forms European taught
2. Fixity of species
-Fixities mean same  never changing
-Forms foundation of origin myths from middle ages in Europe
-Idea that humans as we exist today are the same as when originally
conceived
-Idea of sameness, no change, once species created they do not change,
same now as they were at their origin
-According to theory of middle ages, there is an ultimate being that created
all living thing – deeply embedded in religious beliefs at the time
3. Great Chain of Being
-Aristotle came up with idea of great chain of being, he placed animal on a
hierarchy that progressed in complexity with humans at the most complex
-Why is he revolutionary? He suggests a direct relationship between
humans and animals
-How does he adhere to the origin myth of time – he still adheres to the
fixities of species
-Test: why revolutionary vs how he adheres to the established thinking of
the time
4. Genus & Species

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-What is a species? Group of animal that could successfully reproduce and
John Ray came up with it
-This year will ask what time John Ray came up with, answer: species
-He came up with the term genus and species by grouping animal
according to its physical traits which we still use today, which is why he is
revolutionary
-He also adheres to the fixities of species, believes it is still in its same form
5. System Natura: Linnaeus, 1735
-Increased classification of organisms to form a huge taxonomic categories
-Idea of a system of nature, all organisms in nature are connected and
have a relative relationships in terms of traits
-This is what he recognized
-Why is the same as the religious framework at the time? Because adhered
to fixities of species
6. Uniformitarianism: Lyell, 1833
-Important because came up with term uniformitarianism
-He realized that geological processes appeared to be continuous
(ongoing) and uniform (re-occurring)
-Saw it was the same geological processes that happened today and in
distant pass
-Sets time line of the earth back by millions of years
-Prior to that, the age of the earth was probably only a few thousand years
-Why revolutionary – set time line of earth back millions of years
-How does adhere to time? Still believes in fixities of species  organisms
as they exist today is the same as how it was created
7. Survival of the Fittest; Malthus, 1798
-Was an economist and studied population
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