ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Prepared-Core Technique, Sterkfontein, Louis Leakey

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May 30th 2013 Lecture 7
ANT101: THE GENUS HOMO
Early homo
2.5-1.6 mya
Louis Leakey (1960) rst discovery, Olduvai Gorge, Leakey, he made a discovery of a new
skull, he recognized this to be di#erent, the di#erence was in the cranial vault, he named it
Homo habilis, he includes this specimen within our genus homo, he found the direct
ancestor to modern homo sapiens, habilis the second reason is –means handy, he gave the
name handy name, rst species to have a standardized tool technology. Dated to 1.8 mya,
found in Olduvai Gorge.
New things for test: austra. found only in Africa, east or south, NO TOOLS !
Tools found only in genus HOMO,
Olduvai Gorge, Northern Tanzania
1.8 mya
Homo habilis
Significance of the name
Early tool makers
Ancestors to modern humans
Other Plio-Pleistocene sites
EAST AFRICA origin for genus homo is in AFRICA, because all early homo species are found only in east or south
Africa.
Omo, Southern Ethiopia
Koobi Fora,
KMN-ER 1470 – Richard Leakey
Olduvai Gorge
SOUTH AFRICA
Sterkfontein
Swartkrans
General trends of early homo in comparison to Australopithecines
CRANIAL ANATOMY -increase of cranial capacity. What is average cranial capacity in Australopithecus- 400-500
cm3, like chimpanzees. The range for early homo is 600-800. There is a trend, as you go up the brain size increases.
Brain expansion 600-800 cc
Thin walled – no crests
Rounded vault
Weakly projecting ridges
Variable facial proportions between individuals
No sagittal crest
Reduced prognathism
Rounded cranial vault
KNM ER 1470 (homo rudolfensis?) special specimen, found in Koobi Fora, very different from early homo
species, has a large cranial capacity, 752, some researchers have put this into a different genus, homo rudolfensis.
Should some of them be pulled out into autralopithecus?
Koobi Fora, Richard Leakey (1972)
1.9 mya
752 cc
Rounded cranial vault
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May 30th 2013 Lecture 7
No heavy crests
Robust face
Back teeth still quite large (but < australopithecines)
Associated crude stone tools
More human like brain organization
Evolutionary Role played by early homo
TRENDS:
Increased encephalization
Dental reduction
Tool making ?
Opportunistic tools 5 – 2.5 mya
Manuports:
Unaltered objects carried some distance before use some kind of tool use, chimps will modify sticks, pick
up rocks, open a nut. MANUPORTS any stones that were used, serve a function, transported or brought to
that area, taking the rock somewhere, transporting their tools for use. They were carried by homo or
australo. Identify them by, type of use, and rocks that are not found in that area.
LOWER PALEOLITHIC (old stone age) paleolithic (lithic- stone age) OLD STONE AGE. Earliest Homo.
Beings with genus homo, important for brain development and diet. Tools rely on a brain power. We see the same
tool kit used by all members of genus homo.
Approx. 2.5 mya – to 200 kya
Important in brain evolution
Emphasizes manual dexterity
Requires a complex, abstract thought process
OLDOWAN INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX tool industry
Earliest identifiable stone tools know what is the tool industry, who made it- early homo, appears 2.5 mya,
what is the characteristics tool- Olduwan chopper. KNOW THE 6 THINGS FOR EACH TOOL ON TEST.
Object you hit it on is called anvile. Its called a hard hammer technique, or direct percussion, you are
hitting stone on stone until a piece is broken off and you get a nice sharp edge. A cobble fits in your hand,
and edges are taken off. Its multi purpose
2.5 mya – 1.4 mya
Sites:
lake Turkana
Olduvai Gorge
Hadar
Omo
Characterized by Oldowan Chopping Tool (Oldowan Chopper)
All-purpose chopping tool
Made from smooth water worn cobbles
Multi-purpose
oButcher meat, split bones, defense
Hard hammer / PERCUSSION METHOD
Hammerstone – Bipolar Percussion
Rock used to strike flakes off cobble
Anvil – Direct Percussion
Large rock that you strike the cobble against or place the cobble on
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May 30th 2013 Lecture 7
Concoidal fracture
Produced by striking one stone against another
Flake piece that breaks off is called a flake, this becomes more important, because you can retouch them.
Chip of rock off the cobble
oSharp, useful edges
oScrapers
Cultural Significance of Oldowan tool tradition
New additions to diet: Meat- meat is important for genus homo, involved group sharing, social
organization, early homo was probably a scavenger than a hunter. With scavenging you need
communications, food sharing. Gives us more time to do other things.
ogroup sharing
oscavenging
oSaved time & labor for food acquisition
Probably resulted from an adaptation to a new environment
Bipedalism freed hands
Large predatory carnivores
Significance of Oldowan tool tradition
Evolution of brain
oManual dexterity
oFine motor manipulation
Set stage for language acquisition
oBrain lateralization
ohandedness
Homo erectus 2nd species of genus homo, very important for a number of reasons, 1st species to leave Africa, trend
through genus homo is encephalization, h erectus is 1000 cm3, lived for a million years, 2mya-300,00ya. Huge time,
found primarily through the OLD WORLD. First inhabitants of the NEW WORLD is modern homo sapiens.
1. 1st hominin species to exist outside of Africa
2. an African origin
3. an impressive longevity
4. Extensive geographical spread throughout Old World
First Find: in late 1800s, he wanted to find the missing link, set out to Indonesia, island in Java, he saw a leg sticking
out of a river bank, he named it listed below, was renamed homo erectus, dated to 1.5 mya.
Eugene Dubois, 1891
Trinil, Java
Femur
Pithecanthropus erectus
JAVA SITES
(1.8 mya – 500,000 ya)
ZHOUKOUDIAN, China (600 – 400 kya) best collection of homo erectus found in the world.
Gunnar Andersson
Pei Wenshong began an excavation in 1929, found fragments of skull.
Davidson Black uft, examined the limestone,
Franz Weinreich
Best collection of 600,000 – 300,000 yr old hominids ever found
Minimum 40 individuals – adult male, female & subadults
1000cc aver
100,000 artifacts
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