Tower of babel: attempt to build a tower that would extend into heaven to touch god. Because of their pride, god sent angels down to confuse the people, making them speak in different languages. Many people believe that many parts of the bible are historically accurate. Cratylus said that language is intrinsically related to the thing it refers to (a bell makes a ding-dong" sound). No connection between objects and their linguistic expressions. We agree what we"re going to call things. All varieties of sounds are intrinsically related. Language comes from imitations of natural sounds. Language is based in natural expressions of people. Achieved in vocalization of non-human primates (for darwin). Depiction of space and time more readily done with gesture than with voice. Non-human primate brains don"t have broca"s or wornicke"s area. They have mirror neurons that are paralleled with human language networks. They cannot learn to speak but can learn sign language and symbol systems/gestures.