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Anthropology Cultural : METHODS OF STUDY
May ,17,2011 lec 03
Methods of Study: Overview
1. A Brief History of Ethnography
The Histories (circa 440 B.C.
1.Herodotus - (484 B.C. – 425 B.C.)
- founders of modern history and ethnography (FAMOUS WORK KNOWN as the history,
WAR btw Greeks and Persians.
- Brought history down to earth and didn’t make it about the Greek gods (ANY ONE who
didn’t speak Greek they were referred to bar-bar(Barbarians).
-He traveled around the world alot. He did alot of field work and interviewed ppl who
fought in the Persian war.
-He was interested in ppl every day life (ethnographers). He exaggerated accounts for
his stories but some argue that there is a lot of value in his accounts.
2. Ibn Battuta ( 1304 – 1369 or 1377)
- known as the rehwa, ( A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the
Marvels of Travelling, or, The Rihla of Ibn Batutta (1355) .
-he traveled a lot and observed and as he observed things he would write them down
on his amonwasa .
- He observations were modern. He explored during the time period of 2 hajjs,
- travel silk road. Took trips to madina and he visted deli and he made it all the way to
bayjing and he visited Timbuktu. He made a huge contribution to ethnography.
3. Jean de Léry (1534‐1613)
- known for his famous work, hes considered to be a true ethnographer.
- 1. Detailed account of the Tupinamba of Brazil (History of a Voyage to the Land
ofBrazil, 1578). -He provided a different views on the Tupinamba (they were
cannibalistic). He showed that this was a symbolic act.
- 2. Ethnology as semiotics (they act of eating the prisoner, is a symbol of political
alliance) THIS is an expamle of exco cannibalism (eating ppl in outside of group)
- 3. Basis of cultural comparisonby Michel de Montaigne (Of Cannibals, 1580). Btw
1962-1958 war of rel. There was a war and ppl were eating ppl for food in big
4. Lewis Henry Morgan (1818‐1881)
-expert in constitutional law and member of a gordal secret society
-He was a political activist and acted primarily off the senca Indian
-his fist major work was.League of the Ho‐De‐No‐Sau‐Nee, orIroquois (1851)
- 2nd work hes known for 2.Systems of Consanguinity andAffinity of the Human Family
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