Rules of sentence and phrase formation (horizontal dimension of metaphor) Phrases- any grouping of words: head of a phrase stressed word. Main subject of a sentence: noun phrase [np] Group of words that acts as a noun: verb phrase [vp, adjective phrases [ap, adverb phrases [advp, prepositional phrases [pp] Dependent: requires a main independent clause to complete its meaning. Phrase structure rules: the art student looked at a very beautiful painting, s np vp, np art adj n, vp v pp, verb vb aux, aux tense, tense past, pp prep np. Syntagmatic variation: english: the boy drank the water. (svo, russian: malcik vypil vodu. (svo, turkish: o uk suyu i ti. (sov, arabic: araba lwaladu lma?a. (vso) Referent: two general processes that are involved in the rules of sentence and phrase formation. Whatever language refers to (something concrete: could be object, state of mind, emotions o, referential vs. grammatical meaning. Of the from (meaning only in context of something.