ANT200 (Sept 20).docx

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26 Apr 2012
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Topic 3: Data Collection
1. Survey (finding sites, how we go about finding archaeological sites where the concentration of
data is)
a. Reconnaissance (actual looking for sites)
b. Mapping (more than just sites, where there aren’t sites is just as important, looking
always of environmental context)
2. Excavation (go about gathering data)
a. Test
b. Full scale
- Survey
o Reconnaissance (looking for sites)
Surface survey (key thing, still most common form of looking for sites, analog,
lot of work, go out and look at surface of the ground or close to surface)
Sampling (data universe exist, using certain data only because of time/money
constraint)
Take some parts of known sites, new sites and modern settlement
samples
Test pitting (common in areas with some sort of cover on it, could be trees,
pasture fields that cover the surface area aka dirt)
Aerial photography (more systematic now with the technology we have)
Infrared photography to see the soil levels difference
Crop marks
Remote sensing (gathering data without excavating because it’s expensive and
time consuming, but very destructive)
Learning about the site without excavation
Ground penetrating radar (was developed for geology and physics)
o Mapping
Mapping sites (map out a grid system, recording provenience of everything you
find, mapping context, sketch map, detailed map using theodolite and then fill
out a form; total station; GPS unit that gives x and y...and z for 3D)
Surface collection (found prior to excavation)
Non-intrusive mapping
Magnetometer survey (based on a principle that different types of soil
has different levels of magnetism
Excavation
- Test excavations
o Test nature and size of deposits
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