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ANT203H5 Lecture Notes - Hamadryas Baboon, Japanese Macaque, Uakari

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Esteban Parra

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ANT203Y5 – Biological Anthropology
Lecture 24 – February 4, 2014
New World Monkeys and Old World Monkeys
The New World Monkeys
General Anthropoid Features
-All monkeys and apes diurnal except the NWM called the owl or night monkey
-Stronger dependence on vision and communication
-Most have color vision
-Less reliance on smell and chemical communication, specially OWM
-Shorter trunks and more similar front and rear limbs than prosimians (humans being an
Suborder Anthropoidea
-Infraorder Platyrrhini
oNew World Monkeys (NWM)
-Infraorder Catarrhini
oOld World Monkeys (OWM).
oApes and Humans
Main characteristics in anthropoids
-Infraorder Platyrrhini
oNew World Monkeys (
-Infraorder Catarrhini
oOld World Monkeys, Apes & Humans (
This is important for the test; to know the differences

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ANT203Y5 – Biological Anthropology
Lecture 24 – February 4, 2014
Important Note About the Phylogeny of Platyrrhini
-The phylogenetic relationships between many members of this taxon remain unclear,
although recent research is clarifying the situation.
-The classification detailed below is a commonly used one. At the end of this section, I
also show an alternative classification that is consistent with the molecular data.
Family Callithricidae
-This family includes Marmosets and Tamarins. This group has several unique traits that
are not found in other New World monkeys.
-Some interesting facts about Marmosets and Tamarinds follow…..
Marmoset/Tamarin Claws
-Callithricidae are exceptions to the rule and have claws instead of fingernails – except on
their big toes where they have a normal nail.
Other Interesting Traits of Callithricidae
-Tamarins and marmosets often have twins. This is very unusual among other primates
-Their group structure is also very unique. It is the only primate group in which polyandry
is common (two or more males mate with a female in a single season).
-Also, males play an important role in parental care (also rare among other primates)
Family Cebidae
-In the classification used here, there are six different subfamilies.
oAlouattinae, the howler monkeys.
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