Neolithic: from 12,000 years ago, origins of agriculture, happened at different times worldwide, independently, not instantaneous. Early evidence- natufian: ~11500 years ago, tool kits for harvesting and grinding. "cradle of civilization: mesopotamia, levantine coast of mediterranean sea (syria, jordan, israel, lebanon, west bank, egypt and the nile river. Mesoamerica: wheat in mesopotamia similar to mesoamerica with corn, maize, domestic variant of terosinte, staple food, hypothesis, direct domestication, hybridization, or multiple domestications. Inuit, and other, groups in amazon rainforests: other modes of subsistence ongoing today, very few controlling the many. Oasis hypothesis: gordon childe (1928, drier climate, communities contracted to oases, populations forced into close association with animals (we then domesticated them along with seeds, little support (suggests climate was getting wetter rather than drier) Hilly flanks hypothesis: robert brainwood (1948, hilly flanks of the taurus and zagros mountains, fertile land supported a variety of pans and animals amenable.