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Detailed Lecture Notes - Chapter 2

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Heather Miller

Chapter 2 Lecture  Focus on the lecture notes for this chapter Scientific Method – Reprise Definition of “Theory”  Theory – a well-established and generally accepted explanation (an accepted hypothesis) which o Has been well-supported by testing o Explain ALL existing facts, and o Can provide predictions about new data History of Evolutionary Theory  Biocultural process (all animals and plants) Evolution  Evolution – change in the genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next  Involves the development of species but also within population  Evolutionary theory is a European development  Do not need to know people for the text  only people mentioned in both the lectures and textbook readings History-Necessary Background Developments 1. Experimental science and hypothesis testing Philosophers developed logical reasoning Golden age of experimental science comes from the medieval and Islamic civilizations (1000 years ago) Used hypothetical testing for the natural world 1700s 1800s A.D  two concepts Lyell is known as the father of geology He refines theories and makes them clear and ties them together Two concepts that geologists developed: 2.Uniformitarianism (not catastrophism) – Lyell  Similarities and processes  Prophecies happening in the present (yearly snow melt, volcanoes) could be used to explain deposits from the past (important concept) 3.Time depth of Earth – Lyell  The second thing they observed is that the earth is million years old 4. Classification (taxonomy) including recognition of humans = Animals  Linneaus: Homo sapiens  Enormous diversities of plants and animals  what is more closely related to what  Started to form groups and classify things  Developed the concept of species (group of organisms reproducing offsprings)  Linneaus included humans in the group of animals  Radical idea for that time period as human were not part of that and just separate from the natural world  Linneaus explained that humans are part of the natural world 5. Change within species over time  As opposed to fixity to species, argument by design  New concepts that are now different from the past 6. Attempts to explain evolutionary processes, stressing effects of environmental change – Lamarck  Coining the term biology as a science based on the study of living organisms with evolutionary change as the central concept  Lamarck is the father of biology who created concept  French father who attempts to explain the new concepts of biology and what is causing them  First to say that it has something to do with environmental changes  where speciation is coming from ** Differences between Lamarck and Darwin-Wallace  why natural selection is so important  Lamarck: Inheritance of acquired characteristics requires variation to arise when it is needed (incorrect) o When you need to have longer necks, they will pass it on to their offspring o Acquire characteristics cannot be passed on and cannot be inherited  Darwin & Wallace (Theory of Natural Selection): Evolution requires that variation already exists o Say some giraffes are born with long necks and others are born with shorter necks o Evolution requires you have variation in the population  Figure 2-3, p.24 ** Darwin- Wallace  Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection  Darwin and Wallace do not use a genetic explanation  Natural selection is a MEHANISM for evolution (how it could happen)  Natural selection differential reproductive success in individuals leads to changes in the population  **Summary of natural selection – text p. 30-31  Especially note p. 31:  Natural selection affects the individual, but evol
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