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Detailed Lecture Notes - Chapter 3

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Heather Miller

Lecture Chapter 3 Background Biology: Cells, DNA  Reprise from Monday Two types of Cells  Somatic Cells o All cells excluding sex cells o All somatic cells have the same genetic information  Gametes  Zygote DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)  Structure – Fig. 3-2  Functions o Replication – Fig. 3-3 o Protein Synthesis (with mRNA)  ** Differences in the organisms is the sequence of genes …  Base pairs: A&T, C&G  U instead of T; triplet code (for mRNA) Gene = Sequence of DNA  Regulatory Genes o That produce proteins that influence other genes o Send a message to the cell to be turned on (only a small part is turned on)  Mutation o Change in the DNA o Either a change in the sequence of bases or a change in the structure and number of chromosomes  Genes and mutations are important they lack the production of proteins  Proteins are important in the function of the organism (ie. they affect the regulation of system)  Influence proteins that affect the organism develops from a zygote and the way they function Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis Chromosomes  Figure 3-8  Chromosomes are cellular structures  Chromosomes are DNA wrapped around formed  Only found in cell nuclei  Normally, not during division, when they are unwrapped and lose, they are just one giant DNA molecule composed of thousands of genes 3 billion base pairs  During cell division is when chromosomes become more visible under light microscope  Figure shows a gigantic large wrapped chromosome  a lot of potential DNA coded  DNA molecule itself is a double helix  Chromosomes duplicate themselves during cellular division  Before they separate, there are two identical and attached together at the centromere Chromosome Sets  Chromosomes are organized into set  Humans have 23 non-identical pairs (because they are coming from different parents), but code for the same trait  22 pairs are autosomes  code for the same trait and contain all information for physical characteristics expect for primary sex determination rd  On the 23 pair are sex chromosomes  determine the sex of the organism  For autosomes, you need to have all 22 pairs (both pairs) or the organism will never become created  Zygotes can become organisms and survive with only one sex chromosome (not a typical organism, but still functional) Mitosis  Figure 3-9  Figure 3-11 (all we need to know this amount of the figure)  Occurs in somatic cells  Simple cell division to produce two daughter cells having the exact copy of the original somatic cell  46 chromosomes each (in humans)  Used to produce new cells so the organism can grow and develop Meiosis  Figure 3-10  Figure 3-11  Occurs in reproductive cells  One 46 chromosome cell replicates and splits twice  End off with 4 cells, each having 23 chromosomes (having the same traits but different information)  not identical Mitosis Meiosis Recombination / Crossing-over  During Meiosis there is a process called recombination that can happen  Offspring is not identical to parents because of crossing over Evolutionary Importance  There is an evolutionary advantage since surviving organisms continue to do sexual reproduction  Process of meiosis, greatly increases the rate of genetic variation in the population through a couple of methods:  Recombination, sexual reproduction, mutation
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