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Detailed Lecture Notes - Chapter 4

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Heather Miller

Chapter 4 Lecture Modern Theory of Evolution  Page 60 and 61** good summary and definition  Modern synthesis – Darwin and Wallace idea of natural selection and combines the role of variation for evolution to operate Modern Synthesis  Variation in a population  sexual reproduction and recombination are a much higher source of variation in a population o Produced by mutation  only source of new alleles (in a interbreeding population) o Mixed, distributed by recombination and sexual reproduction o Redistributed through pollutions by gene flow, genetic drift  Natural selection  genetic differences result in higher reproductive fitness for some individuals (due to different reproduction and sexual selection) o Ie. Finches, moths, bacterial, giraffes and swifts (from past notes) o Reproductive fitness  ** Variation is already in the population and does not arise when needed and natural selection works with that (acts upon) Evolution  change in the genetic structure of a population  Long time scale aka. Macroevolutionary o Large often visible phenotype changes in populations o Including speciation  new species  Shorter time scale aka. Microevolutionary o Change in allele frequencies within the population from one generation to the next o Page 80 o When measuring allele frequencies, you look at the genotypes  ABO blood group alleles: ____ O____ B____ A___ Distribution in a pop.: 80% 10% 10% Change over time to: 70% 15% 15% Population  Population - A group of interbreeding individuals; marked by a degree of genetic relatedness and shares a common gene pool o In theory, homo sapiens are one species entire population is capable of interbreeding with each other with fertile offspring  Factors that determine mate choice are geographical, ecological and social Sources that Produce and Redistribute Genetic Variation (pg. 61-65)  Produce Variation o Sexual reproduction/meiosis  variation in phenotypes o Recombination  variation in phenotypes o Mutation only source new alleles and phenotypic variation  Page 62-63**  Redistribution Variation o Gene Flow  genes flow and change of allele frequencies in populations due to interbreeding o Genetic Drift  refers to allele frequencies changes that are produced by random factors  only occurs with small population sizes o Founder effect is a type of genetic drift  ie. island examples  Natural Selection is the most important long-term factor in the direction of evolutionary change (p. 65)  Allele Frequencies o Can only be changed in a population by mutation, gene flow, genetic drift (p. 61-64) o NOT sexual reproduction and recombination Human Variation: Race Race and Polytypic Species  Human are polytypic species  Polytypic - many types  Polytypic Species - local populations that differ in the expressions of phenotypic traits Race as both Social and Biological Concepts  Ethnicity  Race in biological aspect is geographic patterns of a subgroup within a species  Nationality, religious group (Jewish)  In the 1960s, people were trying to replace race with ethnicity  In everyday speech, people substitutes this, proves anthropolical point that you cant separate social and biological concepts Problems with Use of Race and the Definition of Human Biological Groupings  Controversy with SOCIAL associations o A lot of change over time in human groups  “Races” not fixed biological units o We use polygenic trait to measure r
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