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Detailed Lecture Notes Chapter 9

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Heather Miller

Chapter 9 Lecture Early Primate Evolution Eocene – 56-34/33 mya  Eo = first, earliest  1 primates  Prosimian Radiation o Radiation means that species that diversifies into a diversity of niches o Lemurs and loires ancestors  1 Anthropoids o Ancestors of monkeys, apes an humans Oligocene – 33-23 mya  Anthropoid Radiation o Lots of different kinds of monkeys, apes and humans (ancestors not modern)  Start to see a lot more animal species that are more like anthropoids Miocene – 23-5 mya  1 Hominoids o Ancestor of apes and human (and all extinct human ancestors)  Hominoid Radiation o Wide diversity these kinds of animals that fossil apes and humans would have done  Main points are on page 202  Hominoids include the apes  Figure 9-3  Figure 9-4 Miocene Hominoid Distribution o Only in the Old World  They are hominoids  More closely related to the hominins than old World monkeys  Chimp size or bigger  larger body (trend for the primates)  Most of them are so derived, that they are specialized into an adaptive niche  We haven’t found the most direct ancestors for the hominoids  EXCEPTION: celopithicus might be the ancestor for the organatang Hominin Evolution Overview  We are interested in our direct ancestors, hominins o Apes are not included Hominin vs. Hominid  Figure 9-8b  Ancestry is more complicated (as you can see in the lower chart)  Hominids refer to a larger group, while hominins are our species Mosaic Evolution - Figure 9.7 is a really good summary - Mosaic Evolution = little pieces are added to make a whole picture - The earliest hominins are approx. 5 mya (based on fossil evidence)  Bipedal Locomotion o Remains the number one classification trait for hominin o Clear evidence of bipedal adaptation was from 4 mya  Brain – encephalization o Is a gradual process o Overall trend is for the size to increase (not the brain, but different parts of the brain gets bigger) o Take off after around 2 mya o **Encephalization = brain to body size ratio  increases greatly overtime  Dentition o All hominins overtime actually have their front teeth decrease in time o We do not have big canines and incisors  our teeth are relatively the same size o True from 1 mya  Cultural behavior (seen via tools) o Very imporant for hominins o Shows a gradual increase through time Biocultural Evolution  Process of biocultural evolution  Hominins are clearly bioculturally adapting Bipedalism Hominin Bipedalism –Habitual and Obligate  Hominin bipedalism is definitional  Habitual o Do it all the time, favorite means of locomotion o Standard and most efficient locomotion  Obligate o An animal is committed to bipedalism  All the hominins that are 4 mya to present are clearly habitual and obligate bipeds  ADVANTAGES: Much more efficient long term walker, can see farther away, and carry things in y
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