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Detailed Lecture Notes Chapter 11

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Heather Miller

Lecture Chapter 11 Homo Erectus Stone Tools Food – Hunter vs. Scavanger; plants  No evidence for tools Fire – occasional (?)  Pg. 243 all evidence for fire has been overturn  Wonderworks cave in South Africa  great evidence for controlled fire use  Not habitual and just occasional because there is not consistent evidence Language (?) – endocast  Based on brain structure, it is possible for speech but not as complex  We just do not have the evidence Homo erectus to Premodern Humans Overview  Early homo to homo erectus was a quick evolutionary change  Fig. 11-10 Times and Tools  600, 000 year ago or earlier, we see the beginning of one or more transitional species that are grouped together as pre-moderns  Homo hiedelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis  Transitions from homo erectus to modern humans is much more complex because it is closer in time to us and much more gradual  This transition is problematic in eastern Asia because we know less about it  Cultural transitions are distinctive enough where we practice the cultural complexes and give them names  *** What tool tradition and hominins are associated with the lower Paleolithic, middle Paleolithic and to some extent the upper Paleolithic Geological Periods and Climate Change  Figure 11-2 & 11-1  Time period of multiple ice ages with more climates  Whenever you have glaciers in Europe, (right top figure) you have deserts across northern Africa  Difficult for migration to happen outside of South Africa  Interglacial period, Europe is a mild climate, Africa has a lot more rainfall and therefore this is a good time for migration to occur Premoderns: Homo heidelbergensis  Transition form Homo erectus to Homo sapiens  PAGE 254  why there is focus on bumping more than splitting  Premodern we are talking about Homo heidelbergensis Time and Place  600,000 years ago (or earlier) to 125, 000 years ago  Across the Middle Pleistocene  Found all over the Old World  In Europe, Africa, Asia  Overlap with Homo erectus  In most regions, seemed to replaced Homo erectus  survive and do better  In Europe, heidelbergenesis were thought to be the ancestors of the neanderthals  In Africa, heidelbergenesis thought to be the ancestors of modern humans Biological Changes  Page 254, 256, images on fig. 11-6  Transitional from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens – features of both  Like Homo erectus, they still have the big brow ridges, big occipital torus, and fairly low forehead  Like like Homo sapiens  brain size is bigger, brain case is getting more round, they no longer have the maximum width below the ears, but now is above the head, less angled back of the skull, nose are vertical  flatter faces, in general bones are less robust then Homo erectus (but more than Homo sapiens) Cultural Changes (1)Tools: Still Acheulian (west) & pebble tool (east)  Still Acheulian (West) & pebble tool (East)  New technique:
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