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Detailed Lecture Notes Chapter 10

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Heather Miller

Chapter 10- Lecture Notes General Points – Early Hominins  Australopiths (and early Homo)  Figure 9-27; pp. 228-229  4mya – 1 mya  time of a diversity  More species of hominins Diversity of Species/Adaptive Radiation  Variety of Adaptive radiation  More species are adaptive to semi-forested areas  Why is there so many species at this time and not afterwards? (page 228)  They didn’t travel much and tended to stay in small groups while interbreed in small groups (genetic drift)  Increasing diversion of genetic groups and speciation due to lack of travel Brain Size  People generally assumed there was a gradual increase in brain size  When you take into account their body size differences, (ratio or brain and body size), it is flat line in terms of brain size for 3 million year  Therefore not a lot of change in brain size  There is an increase in brain size from the pre-australopiths  There is an increase in the later homo line Development in Children  Salam  Starting a trajectory a longer biological development in children Timing  Later australopiths & Early Homo OVERLAP for more than a million years  On the landscape at the same time for over 1 million years  Figure 9-34  2 or 3 species of Homo running around as well as the autralopiths (huge diversity) Early Homo Time and Place  2.0+ to 1.4 mya  Africa Biological Remains  ***Figure 9-31 – for each species showing distribution of the maps  Compared to the austraopiths, early homo had great brain to body size, their foreheads are a bit higher, teeth start to get smaller and narrower Early Homo Culture  Stone tools (Oldowan assemblage which have a particular set of groups)  Types of tools and how they were made are discussed on pages 225-226  Early Homo are the first habitual users of stone tools, however there is some evidence where australopiths did use some sort of tools  Olduvai Gorge (2 mya – modern): geological paleontological, archaeological (Oldowan), & hominin remains  Have a very well documented group of information for geological sequence (good for dating) and paleotonoglical (for habitat, diet)  Generated a lot of discussion about the nature of early hominin behavior Homo Erectus  First homo species of good solid evidence Time and Place  First identified between 1.8-1.7 mya  Lasted until 100,000 years ago or even later  Longest lived of any homo species  Evolved first in Africa and very quickly moved out to other continents  First hominin species to leave Africa and widely distributed in t
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