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Detailed Lecture Chapter 13 Notes

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Heather Miller

Lecture – Chapter 13 Upper Paleolithic/ Late Stone Age Review  The Upper Paleolithic last from before 40,000 – 12,000 ya  During the end of this period, people come into the American  Populations are very small of hunter-gatherers  In the northern regions, the climate is cold (like the classic “Ice Age”)  There is a diversity of local adaptations  Many tool traditions – blades made of highly prepared cores; pressure flake points are quite distinctive  part of compacted tools  Tools for hunting in a distance  abilities of these hunters to hunt effectively (ie. in farther distances)  The use of bone, ivory and antler  are used to make tools, they are light, tough, durable and also used to make other objects (bead, ornaments)  We see the first stone, twined fiber clothing, basketry, ornaments and body decorations  We see the domestication of the dog (not as food, but for other purposes)  We see burials with grave goods,  Overall, we see a diversity of adaptations to environments and styles (images they use and make things)  See an increasing attention to abstract concepts for communication The EARLIEST AMERICANS  Where were they? What were they like?  There is evidence that the first people were from Eastern Asia Origins in Eastern Asia (where?)  Geographical Evidence o Beringia Land Bridge (between Siberia and Alaska) during 2 time periods. People could walk across and did walk across. (due to sea water levels being low). It was the only land route that ever existed between the Old World and New World. o Pacific Coastal Island Hopping – you could take small boats or rafts, and sailing right beside the land (with are now currently underwater, except for some that are now islands in the California coast).  Cultural Evidence o Is not quite as strong as we would like o Yana RHS site + others  Physical/ Genetic Evidence o Morphology – there is only about a dozen skeletons, therefore we cannot get population data. However, in general these first skeletons are now a generalize type. o Genetic – Ancient populations – very small sample, but so far with evidence we have, (1) these ancient DNA matches modern North American population (2) ancient DNA supports an East Asian origin o Genetic – Modern population – (pg. 317) shows (1) First Nations group showed definite signs of genetic drift and blood type of modern native Americans, have a high variation of OO type (not found in Asia therefore genetic drift)  Modern native populations in America are more closely related to eastern Asians.  OVEALL: all lines of data support EAST ASIAN origin for first populations to settle in Americas Time of Arrival (when?)  Physical/ Genetic Evidence o Post 35, 000 ya – H. sapiens only o There is absolutely no evidence that there has been any species here except H. sapiens  Geographical Evidence o Beringia + Ice Free Corridor – after 13, 500 (p. 310-312)  last paragraph sums up the idea. o Pacific Coastal Route (Boats/rafts) – coastal resources by 16, 000 ya (p. 312-314)  we know that they had boats or rafts of some kind, because there is evidence of them in Australia and the only way to get there was to go across the coast o The sites they followed, (1) any ice free corridor sites, were likely destroyed by the glacial, and (2) coastal sites are not underwater  Cultural Evidence o Linguistics o Try to estimate when languages separated o Linguistics analysits said that the first group of people can into the Americas 18,000 ya. Also suggested later wave of people from Asian came 9,000 ya (Askabaskin speakers)  Current Consensus: o ca. 16, 000 ya (or earlier) with rapid expansion (especially down the coast) Earliest Evidence in America “Pre-Paleo-Indian” sites)  Monte Verde, S. American (the MOST IMPORANT) o Page 319 o Verified pre=13,500 ya = ca. 14,500 ya = pre-Paleo-Indian o Amazing preservation that are almost 14,000 years old o This site was so amazing that the timing was so controversial  Debra L. Friedkin site, Texas, N. Am (also Important) o Pre-Paleo-Indian tools stratified below Paleo-Indian artifacts (between 15,500 and 13,200 ya) o Evidence for development of Clovis o Butter-milk creek (used to be called this) o Evidence for people with a different style of artifacts and what the are eating and hunting o This is found in stratifications  Other sites o Some underwater Paleo-Indians  First group of people we know much about in the Americas Who, What, When?  13,200 – 9,000/ 8,000 ya  Big game hunters of Plains o Western North America (stereotype) o Used specialized spear points, to now what are extinct mammoths o They were more diversified with their meals – shellfish, fish, different types of meat  Tools and Artifacts o Known for their stone projectile points o Clovis, folsom, plano Dalton o They seemed to change the way they were hafting their tools  Hunting t
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