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Lecture

Detailed Lecture Chapter 16 Notes

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT101H5
Professor
Heather Miller
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 16 Lecture Notes Effects of Food Production – and CITIES  Increased Population Density o People are closer together  Permanent Settlements  New Technologies o Increasing craft specialists  New Social and Economic Relations o New Status ideas  Environmental Changes o Including decreased species diversity o Manipulation of the environment for cultural purposes  Diet & Health o Including new diseases due to population density o Less starvation, more malnutrition and especially new diseases o Zoolic diseases (diseases you get from animals) o Reliable new supply allowing new economic and social roles Cities (Urbanism)  We begin to see more status emerging  Definition of the City (page 375) o Large settlement, dense population o Function as center for surrounding settlements o Place of social complexity (non-kin; classes) o Center for production, trade, religion, administration  Between 6,000 -5,000 years ago we see the first cities  Old World are typically are much more densely settled  New World is more spread out in density States (Political – & Social – Hierarchies)  Similarly today, almost everyone lives in a nation state Definition of State:  Textbook: (from the perspective of modern states) – pg. 376 - 377 o Governmental entity, politically controls territory o Authority to settle disputes o Maintains central symbols of society  Religious symbols (if they draw on religious society)  These can be objects, places, building o Defends/expands society  Implies a sort of force  ALSO in Ancient States: (contrasted with other political systems) o Power to enforce decisions through coercion/force  As well as persuasion o Leaders highly ranked, usually hereditary  Of a different social class o Power of leaders over non-kin  Different of other system where you have power over them because you are the elder  Here you have power over non based on kin relationship o Associated with CLASSED-BASED societies Class  Divisions into social groups which are hierarchical o Not all even  Usually based on occupational/economic groups, (not kin-groups) but can have hereditary aspect o Classes are often grouped within economic and occupational commonality Pathways to increased social status  Think about the pathways through which one can gain social status in the past  Hereditary reasons happen right away  Skills is the first reason for some leadership status o Ie. Exceptionally skilled hunter, persuading people to do things, to solve conflicts  This is a slow process  Wealth – if you accumulate surplus through wealth where people owe you things when they are in bad times and you help them  Trade goods – having a skill this way  Have a right to useful resources – controlling particular resources  Ownership of land seems to be a relatively late development in most societies o Might have a big family to produce more (not just having a big land)  Might own things that are prestigious o Ie. Family Heirlooms Civilization  According to the textbook, pg. 374, involve o Political organizations (states of one kind or another) o Social organizations based on classes  Some things that we call civilizations involve more than one political entity  TEXTBOOK DEFINTION: o The larger social order that includes states related by language, tradition, history, economic ties, and other shared cultural aspects Typical Attributes – Some or all of:  Urbanization (Cities)  Social Stratification (hierarchical classes) o Different access to different types of objects  Centralization of power  Complex exchange systems o Political economics start having safety nets, trade relations  Labour control/ mobilization Social Cohesion – mechanisms of cohesion can be:  First time people are living together who are not related to each other o Different religions, backgrounds, traditions o No common elder to solve these differences  Overtly coercive o Military, police o States that rely on force don’t last that long – not very effective or efficient  Based on ideologically – motivated solidarity o Religion, social rules, nationalism o People believe they have something in common  Based on common economic interests o Trade, wealth accumulation o Maintaining the peace for trade, for getting along is an important motivator for allow of wealthy people in a society  Based on real or fictive kin relationships  Ancient states, like modern states, used a mixture of these to promote cohesion. Causes of the Origins of Civilizations  Page 379 – environmental factors  Multiple, including: o Managerial organization (pg. 381)  Organization labor mobility o Internal conflict  Solving disputes o External conflict  Being a war leader o Integrative mechanisms  Religion, nationalism  All about Organization of Society o Organization of information, decision-making, goods and services, etc.  Do not need to memorize the model 393-395 Early Civilization (Figure. 15-3 & 15-15) Old World (1)Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad) (2)Egypt (3)Indus (4)China (Shang) New World (1)Maya (various city-states) (2)Theotihuacan (3)Toltecs (4)Aztecs (5)South American groups (Moche, Wari, Tiwanaku, Chimor & Inca/Inka) Know those in bold for final exam Example: Inka (Inca) Civilization and Empire  Stereotype of what the ancient empire state should be like Background  Located in the West South of South America, west coast and highlands o They started from central location and then expanded concurring other groups around them, rapidly o They draw on the achievement of earlier centuries o Steep environment, narrow valleys o Famous for creating taros systems  Chronology (ca. 1450 AD to 1530 AD – Spanish) but draw on earlier civilizations of region food base and other resources o Inka draw on food bases from a wide range across their groups o Able to use the complementarity of their crops to ensure stability o Fish was an important part
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