Class Notes (834,979)
Canada (508,839)
Anthropology (2,022)
ANT101H5 (475)

Detailed Lecture Chapter 16 Notes

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Heather Miller

Chapter 16 Lecture Notes Effects of Food Production – and CITIES  Increased Population Density o People are closer together  Permanent Settlements  New Technologies o Increasing craft specialists  New Social and Economic Relations o New Status ideas  Environmental Changes o Including decreased species diversity o Manipulation of the environment for cultural purposes  Diet & Health o Including new diseases due to population density o Less starvation, more malnutrition and especially new diseases o Zoolic diseases (diseases you get from animals) o Reliable new supply allowing new economic and social roles Cities (Urbanism)  We begin to see more status emerging  Definition of the City (page 375) o Large settlement, dense population o Function as center for surrounding settlements o Place of social complexity (non-kin; classes) o Center for production, trade, religion, administration  Between 6,000 -5,000 years ago we see the first cities  Old World are typically are much more densely settled  New World is more spread out in density States (Political – & Social – Hierarchies)  Similarly today, almost everyone lives in a nation state Definition of State:  Textbook: (from the perspective of modern states) – pg. 376 - 377 o Governmental entity, politically controls territory o Authority to settle disputes o Maintains central symbols of society  Religious symbols (if they draw on religious society)  These can be objects, places, building o Defends/expands society  Implies a sort of force  ALSO in Ancient States: (contrasted with other political systems) o Power to enforce decisions through coercion/force  As well as persuasion o Leaders highly ranked, usually hereditary  Of a different social class o Power of leaders over non-kin  Different of other system where you have power over them because you are the elder  Here you have power over non based on kin relationship o Associated with CLASSED-BASED societies Class  Divisions into social groups which are hierarchical o Not all even  Usually based on occupational/economic groups, (not kin-groups) but can have hereditary aspect o Classes are often grouped within economic and occupational commonality Pathways to increased social status  Think about the pathways through which one can gain social status in the past  Hereditary reasons happen right away  Skills is the first reason for some leadership status o Ie. Exceptionally skilled hunter, persuading people to do things, to solve conflicts  This is a slow process  Wealth – if you accumulate surplus through wealth where people owe you things when they are in bad times and you help them  Trade goods – having a skill this way  Have a right to useful resources – controlling particular resources  Ownership of land seems to be a relatively late development in most societies o Might have a big family to produce more (not just having a big land)  Might own things that are prestigious o Ie. Family Heirlooms Civilization  According to the textbook, pg. 374, involve o Political organizations (states of one kind or another) o Social organizations based on classes  Some things that we call civilizations involve more than one political entity  TEXTBOOK DEFINTION: o The larger social order that includes states related by language, tradition, history, economic ties, and other shared cultural aspects Typical Attributes – Some or all of:  Urbanization (Cities)  Social Stratification (hierarchical classes) o Different access to different types of objects  Centralization of power  Complex exchange systems o Political economics start having safety nets, trade relations  Labour control/ mobilization Social Cohesion – mechanisms of cohesion can be:  First time people are living together who are not related to each other o Different religions, backgrounds, traditions o No common elder to solve these differences  Overtly coercive o Military, police o States that rely on force don’t last that long – not very effective or efficient  Based on ideologically – motivated solidarity o Religion, social rules, nationalism o People believe they have something in common  Based on common economic interests o Trade, wealth accumulation o Maintaining the peace for trade, for getting along is an important motivator for allow of wealthy people in a society  Based on real or fictive kin relationships  Ancient states, like modern states, used a mixture of these to promote cohesion. Causes of the Origins of Civilizations  Page 379 – environmental factors  Multiple, including: o Managerial organization (pg. 381)  Organization labor mobility o Internal conflict  Solving disputes o External conflict  Being a war leader o Integrative mechanisms  Religion, nationalism  All about Organization of Society o Organization of information, decision-making, goods and services, etc.  Do not need to memorize the model 393-395 Early Civilization (Figure. 15-3 & 15-15) Old World (1)Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad) (2)Egypt (3)Indus (4)China (Shang) New World (1)Maya (various city-states) (2)Theotihuacan (3)Toltecs (4)Aztecs (5)South American groups (Moche, Wari, Tiwanaku, Chimor & Inca/Inka) Know those in bold for final exam Example: Inka (Inca) Civilization and Empire  Stereotype of what the ancient empire state should be like Background  Located in the West South of South America, west coast and highlands o They started from central location and then expanded concurring other groups around them, rapidly o They draw on the achievement of earlier centuries o Steep environment, narrow valleys o Famous for creating taros systems  Chronology (ca. 1450 AD to 1530 AD – Spanish) but draw on earlier civilizations of region food base and other resources o Inka draw on food bases from a wide range across their groups o Able to use the complementarity of their crops to ensure stability o Fish was an important part
More Less

Related notes for ANT101H5

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.