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ANT101 Intro to Anthropology.docx

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Heather Miller

ANT101 Intro to Anthropology Week 1 January 9, 2013 Chapter 1  tests: mostly big pic, textbook has website but the questions on it are much more detailed then lec  if on lecture, lab, and textbook will definitely be on test  if jus 2 then likely it will be on test  if jus 1 then not that likely Biolcultural approach in anthropology  says biology and culture are both important in understanding humans and evolution, human behavior.  a) What is culture? is all aspects of human beliefs, material culture, and behavior  Culture is learned and its transmitted by non biological means  b) Enculturation is a process by which individuals learn the cultural beliefs and values of society and the way these values and beliefs are transmitting  c) Evolution is the biological changes in the genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next. it does includes speciation (development of new species) as well as smaller and larger changes  Biocultural evolution is the way biology and culture interact and interacted to affect the way humans have evolved  Biocultural Adaptation refers to physiological or behavior adjustments made by organisms (humans in this case) in response to the environment , and that environment can either be physical or cultural Scientific Method  theory- is a well estbd. and well accepted hypothesis and involves 3 things. 1) has been well supported by testing 2. explains all existing facts 3) can provide predictions about new data Week 2 January 14, 2013 Necessary Background Developments  a) lyell is important for 2 reasons. 1 for uniformitirianism ( observed that things and objects that happened in the past like can be compared to present time and are the same) 2. time depth of earth (showed earth is many millions years old not thousands)  b) Classification (Taxonomy)  c) Change within species over time  d) experimental science and hypothesis testing  e) Attempts to explain evolutionary processes, stressing effects of environmental change Differences between lamark and Darwin-wallace  Lamark- inheritance of aqquired characteristics requires variation to arise when it is needed  Darwin- Wallace- theory of natural selection- evo requires that variation already exists. these guys actually convincingly put forth a mechanism for evolution that is still being used today. they said evo by natural selction and differential reproductive success in individuals leads to changes in the population. unit of natural selec is individual, unit of evo is the population.  **read text p 30-31**  Summary of mechanism of evolutionary change by natural selection. 1. trait must be inherited. 2. must be variation in trait within the population. 3. fitness is RELATIVE reproductive success, changes as environment changes  Reproductive fitness and success is not only about survival of individuals but also 1. reprod. to produce offsprings and 2. survival of offspring to reproduce Background Biology: Cells and DNA  2 types of cells in body a) gametes zygote b) somatic cells  DNA made up of backbone, sugar bases, and base pairs  2 functions of dna, protein synt. and replication  triplet codes are the same for all organisms  difference between organisms has none to do wid wat their dna is made up of but rather how its organized. Week 2 January 16, 2013  gene is a sequence of DNA. 1. regulatory genes and 2. Mutations ( a change in the DNA, either a change in the sequence of bases or a change in the structure and number of chromosomes)  genes and mutations are important cuz they order for proteins.  protesins are important cuz they create structure of organism, muscles, nerves, affect regulation of systems etc.   Week 3 January 23, 2013- human variation  midterm is same format as last yrs, 35 m.c and maybe matching,  more variation within populations then between them-  most characteristics are continually variation, they are not just lended to u 2 patterns for human variation studies  you look at variations in allele frequency between and within pops  you also look at the adaptive significance of genotypic and phenotypic variation Variation in allele frequency  it studies polymorphisms- more than 1 allele ie lactose intolerance  uses hardy weinburg equilibrium equation- distribution of alleles, ideal conditions  multivariate approaches (statistics) Week 4- January 28, 2013  MOVIE*** Wednesday January 16 , 2013 Lecture 4/readings chapter 3 Two types of cells in body 1. Somatic cells: all cells in body except those involved with reproduction 2. Gametes -> zygote: reproductive cells: egg cells (F) sperm cells (M) DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - Nucleotides: basic units of the DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, phosphate unit and one of four DNA bases Two functions: replication and protein synthesis Protein Synthesis - Important job for the DNA, to direct the manufacture of proteins within the cell Gene: sequence of DNA 1. Regulatory genes: genes that code fir the production of proteins that can influence the action of other genes. Many are active only during certain stages of development. 2. Mutation: A change in DNA. The term can refer to changes in DNA bases as well as changes in chromosome number or structure. Chromosomes: found in cell nuclei - only see them in cell division - 23rd pair is the sex chromosomes - Females= xx Males= xy Mitosis (fig 3-11): Simple cell division; the process by which somatic cells divide to produce two identical daughter cells Meiosis (fig 3-11): Cell division in specialized cells in ovaries and testes. Meiosis involves two divisions and results in four daughters cells, each containing only half the original number of chromosomes, these cells develop into gametes Recombination: Also called crossing over Mutation is a source of variation, but Recombination and Sexual Reproduction are much greater sources of population variation Genetics principle discovered by Mendel - Hybrids: offspring of mixed ancestry; heterozygotes Principle of Segregation: Trait Expression: Genotypes: genetic makeup of an individual Phenotypes: detectable physical characteristics Alleles: different options in a gene The modern synthesis 1. The production and redistribution of variation inherited differences among organisms) 2. Natural selection acting on this variation, whereby inherited differences or variations, among individuals differentially affect their ability to successfully reproduce *pg. 57 comparison of monogenic and polygenic traits st 
 Monday January 21 , 2013 Lecture 5/readings chapter 4 - Ch. 4 Heredity and Evolution - Physical traits: skin color, hair color, hair form, head shape and nose shape - Biological determinism: the concept that phenomena, including various aspects of behavior are governed by biological factors; the inaccurate association of various behavioral attributes with certain biological traits, such as skin color - Eugenics: the philosophy of “race improvement” through the forced sterilization of members of some groups and increased reproduction among others; an overly simplified, often racist view that’s now discredited - Polytypic: referring to species composed of populations that differ in the expression of one or more traits - Polymorphisms: traits that differ in expression between populations and individuals - Lactase persistence: in adults, the continued production of lactase, the enzyme that breaks down lactose (milk sugar). This allows adults in some human populations to digest fresh milk products. The discontinued production of lactase in adults leads to lactose intolerance and the inability to digest fresh milk - Population genetics: area of research that, among other things, examines allele frequencies in populations and attempts to identify the various factors that cause allele frequencies to change over time - Gene pool: the total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population - Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium: the mathematical relationship expressing- under conditions in which no evolution is occurring- the predicted distribution of alleles in populations; the central theorem of population genetics Factors that act to change allele frequencies include: - 1. New variation (that is, new alleles produced by mutation) - 2. Redistributed variation (that is, gene flow or genetic drift) - 3. Selection of “advantageous” allele combinations that promote reproductive success (that is, natural selection) The modern synthesis - 1- The production and redistribution of variation inherited differences among organisms) - produced by mutation - redistributed by gene flow, genetic drift - already in a population - 2- Natural selection acting on this variation, whereby inherited differences or variations, among individuals differentially affect their ability to successfully reproduce - ^ need both for evolution to happen Population: a group of interbreeding individuals; marked by a degree of genetic relatedness and shares a common gene pool - factors that determine mate choice are geographical, ecological and social Sources that produce and redistribute genetic variation - 1. produce variation - sexual reproduction/meiosis recombination mutation (only source new alleles) - 2. Redistribute variation - -gene flow - genetic drift (including founder effect) - natural selection is the most important long-term factor in the direction of evolutionary change (pg. 65) - 3. Allele frequencies - can only be changes by mutation, gene flow, genetic drift Problems with use of race and the definition of Human Biological groupings - 1. controversy with social associations - 2. “races” not fixed biological units
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